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In the very early days of the settlement of New Zealand, the pioneers passed through wany exciting, perilous, yet interesting experiences. Although a comparatively short period has elapsed since the first actual settlement took place, the country has changed and improved to such an extent that it is hard for any but the very old settlers to realise the marvellous changes that have been wrought. With the object of throwing some light on incidents the early days which were pregnant with history, and in giving some insight into Maori character and methods, I have been induced to write the reminiscences which appear in this booklet. In doing so, I have endeavoured to honestly describe events which came under my actual observation, and my remarks with reference to the Maoris are based on personal experience. During practically the whole of my life—and I am now an old man—I have lived among the Maoris, and on looking back on the many acts of kindness shown me by the Natives, I feel that I would, be indeed ungrateful and unjus if I did not pay a tribute to a brave, noble, and much-maligned race. As I first knew him, the Maori was ignorant, superstitious, and cruel, but he was brave and honourable. He defended himself against the Pakeha invaders with rare courage and skill, and the secret of his long and effective resistance to superior numbers might advantageously be studied by his conquerors. If the perusal of the pages of this booklet throws some light on the early history of this district and the Dominion, and causes the readers to take more interest in the exciting times of our early settlement, I will be amply repaid for any trouble I have taken in the writing of my experiences.




It was in the month of October, 1840, that my father's family left Gravesend in the ship Lady Nugent, and it was on the 17th March of the following year that we landed at Port Nicholson. Our troubles began on the voyage. Our mother died, also our baby, a sister, a brother, and a cousin, and my father entered upon his colonial life with four little motherless children. My parents had been induced to emigrate by the glowing accounts circulated in the Home Country of the bright future awaiting those- who would throw in theirlot with the New Zealand Company. My father paid the Company £500 for the 500 acres of land which was to be our future home—only to find on arrival that all the land was in the possession of the Natives, and that there was no home for us but the immigration depot. My father, as soon as possible, got the Natives to make us a house in Native fashion of toetoe reeds and thatch.

My personal troubles began while we were still in immigrants' quarters. One dull grey winter afternoon, as my aunt was busy washing, with her pots on a blazing fire, I sat down on a log beside the fire to play. The flames caught my clothes and, all in a blaze, I rushed into the house. My aunt was coming out of the door with some clothes in her hands; she threw them over me and put the fire out, but not before I was badly burnt about the back. No medical treatment was available, but my father did all he could for me, .with little success. I layhelpless and sufferingweak after week, and was not expected to live. One day, a good old Maori came into the house to sell potatoes, and, seeing me asked my fatherwhat was the matter with the boy. My father explained and showed him my burns. The Maori asked if he might beallowed to cure me, and my father, who had tried every kind of treatmenthe could think of, and had begun to regard my case as hopeless, gave his consent. .Next morning the Maori came with. a basket of clay kneaded to the consistence of putty. This he carefuliv applied to the injured parts. The coolness of the moist clay was grateful beyond description, and in about an hour I bcgan to feel better. Next morning , he came and repeated the treatment, and so on daily for about a week, when I was able to leave my bed and get about. Ever sinceI have cherished grateful memories of the good old Maori who certainly saved my life.

My father, who was a rope-maker, had brought out with him the necessary plant to carry on the business; and established a rope-walk at Te Aro in 1842. The trouble with the Natives in 1844 cut off the supply of flax, so he transferred his rope-walk to Waikawa, leaving his children in Wellington. The following year, feeling satisfied that the Native disturbance's were over, he made arrangements for us to come to him in the Fidele, a little schooner of about twelve tons, which he had chartered to take a load of rope to Wellington and return with goods to Waikawa. It was in May, 1845, that the captain of the schooner called at our house to take us four children on board. We were put below in a small cabin, the air in which soon became stifling. We sailed about 9 o'clock in the evening, and very soon after our departure the wind rose to a hurricane. We were roused by the storm and the shouting of the men, who closed down the cabin hatch. We children had a terrible time below during the gale. We could hear the great seas sweeping the deck, so that it was wonderful that the crew were not swept overboard. We heard the hurrying feet above, shouts, of desperation and horrible curses. Nearly suffocated, knocked about by the plunging of the little craft, which, rearing high on a great billow, would plunge as if descending to the depths the next moment, the thoughts of our discomfort were lost in our sense of imminent peril. The skipper put back, and by midnight we were once more safe in the harbour of Wellington; but the impression the experience of those terrible hours made on my mind has never been effaced. When we were put on shore the master told us that he would be leaving again in the morning, and that be would call for us at the house. He did, but we were not to be found, so he had to leave without us. From our hiding-place we watched the Fidele safely out of the harbour, and then returned to the house. My father, when he met the vessel at Waikawa, was disappointed to find that we were not on board. The following month he despatched a trustworthy Maori to guide us up the coast to our future home. The name of our guide was Ropina. He is still living, but he is now known by the name of Tamihana Whareakaka. After much persuasion we were induced to entrust ourselves to his care and guidance. At that time the only European settlement between Wellington and Otaki was the militarybarracks .at the frontier post, a short distance fromParemata, in the Porirua district, where Plimmerton now stands. The military were stationed there to keep in check the disaffected Natives under Rangihaeata. Save at this point our journey lay entirely through Native diitricts, occupied by several tribes. The inhabitants lived in stockaded pas; they had been trained from childhood in the art of war, and their strongest instincts were associated with the love of war and revenge.

It waas in June, 1845, that we four children, with our guide Ropina, started on our weary journey over the rough bush tracks from Wellington to Waikawa,. The first day we started to climb the long forest-clad range standing above Kaiwharawhara, overlooking Port Nicholson, and we had a great struggle to ascend the hill. My younger brother, being too weak to walk, had to be carried most of the way in a blanket, slung from the shoulders, by Ropina. We three children followed behind. When our guide was tired he would put the child down and let him walk a little way. All that day we followed the steep and rough trail over the ranges, through dense underbrush and tangled supple-jacks, over prostrate logs, across swamps and streams, by rugged hill-sides, and through darkening woods—and still before us marched our watchful guide, carrying my little brother, besides his burden of blankets and food for us all. Ever, as he trotted along, he talked to us in his few words of broken English, cheering us on, comforting us as best he could, and calming our fears. No stream was there to ford, no treacherous swamp or rough place to cross, but he assisted each one over in safety; and then, resuming his heavy burden, placed himself once more at our head. Thus we fared on, we children bravely trying not to be afraid, and sustaining ourselves with the thought that we were going to our father. Our first day's journey brought us to Mr and Mrs Wall's house at Takapau, called in those days "The Half-way House." Those two kind settlers were very good to us, gave us food and shelter, and made up a bed for us in front of the fire-place.

Next day we continued our journey along a track through dense bush to Kenepuru, Poriru.a, the place known in after years as "The Ferry". It took us the whole day to travel this far.

When we arrived the soldiers were engaged in forming the Porirua road to Wellington. Our guide took us to a rude accommodation house, kept by Mrs Jackson, a negro woman, and left us there, thinking that among people of our own race we would be well looked after. We were given a corner of the whare in which to pass the night, but we suffered much discomfort and fear, for the place was filled with rough soldiers, drinking and quarrelling until nearly daylight. We enquired anxiously for our friend Ropina, but he had gone to spend the night with his own people at a neighbouring kainga. The hours of darkness passed very slowly and wearily, and we were right glad when daylight returned, and with it the trustyRopina. This night, spent among our own countrymen,was the only occasion on the whole journey when we children were not treated with all kindness and respect. The next day Ropina got Mr Jackson's men to ferry us across to Paremata, where the barracks of the soldiers were situated. The officer in command, on seeing us little folk and hearing that we were on our way through the hostile country to Waikawa, was greatly amazed, and at first would not permit us to proceed. At length our guide, through the medium of the regimental interpreter, convinced him that we could pass through in safety, and we resumed our journey. Leaving Paremata and its lone frontierpost, we travelled along the beach to Taupo, the site of the present station of Plimmerton, where Mr Rhodes at that time kept a store just at the entrance of the bush. Mr Rhodes, seeing us, asked where we were going, and we told him, we were on the way to our father at Waikawa. He seemed in doubt as to our safety, mid questioned our guide, who assured him that there was no danger. Most of the Natives who had taken up arms were relatives of his, and would not molest the children committed to his charge. Mr Rhodes was reassured; he gave us food, and to our guide some tobacco.

We continued our journey northward through the Pukerua Bush ranges, looking down, as we climbed, the long leading spur, upon the beautiful bay enclosed by forest-covered hills, its waters glistening in the rays of the sun. Beneath us on the beach we saw the old-time kaingas—Hongoeka, Motuhara, and Turikawera—the homes in days of yore of the Ngatikahungunu, before the invasion of the fierce Ngatiawa from far-away Taranaki. We saw the waters gliding past Horopaki, the distant hill of Whitirea guarding the approach of Titahi, and the bare island of Mana that witnessed the migration of Kupe. Throughout the day we toiled through the dense bush and clambered up the rocky ridges, until, towards evening, we emerged from the forest and entered on the old summit of Pukerua Hill. On the hill, where the range descends abruptly to the sea, and isolated on the island side by miles of tangled forest and rugged mountains, was one of the strongholds of the Ngatitoa,. This was the Waimapihi Pa, originallyheld by the Ngaturu hapu of the Ngatikahungunu, the former inhabitants of the Wellington district. To this pa the refugees of the Muaupoko retreated after having been defeated by Te Rauparaha at Horowhenua, where the lake pas Waikiekie, Awamate and Te Namuiti fell to the prowess of the warlike Ngatitoa. Waimapihi was afterwards taken by Te Rauparaba, with great slaughter, and it is said that the victors remained on the spot for two months, on the bodies of the slain and of the prisoners. But Nemesis was on their trail. A war-party of Ngatikahungunu defeated the Ngaiitoa and drove them back to Waikanae. This land was re-occupied by Ngatitoa some years afterwards, and came into the possession of the Ngatikahutaiki hapu, whose representative, Te Pirihana, resided there till recently; his father, Tungia, was one of the chiefs of Ngatitoa when they took the pa. Built on a hill-top, the fortified village contained many hundreds pf inhabitants. The outer stockade, consisting of huge tree-trunks set side by side, in the ground, was called the pekerangi. The tops of these high posts were carved into hideous figures with protruding tongues and great glaring eyes set with the shining paua, shell. Inside this defence were two other lines of palisades with deep ditches between, and underground ways for the defenders to retreat through if driven back from the pekerangi. There, in that lone mountain fort, dwelt a section of the Ngatitoa, anxious for their tribal Mana, distrustful of the pakeha, looking down dayafter ayupon the sea of Raukawa which lay beneath them, looking down upon the lone Kapiti, their refuge of former times, when theyfirst migrated from their ancestral lands at Kawhia; noting, too, with jealous eyes the increasing numbers of the pale-faced paheka ­looking also anxiously to the eastward, where, a few miles away, their tribal comrades were fighting in defence of the mana of their race against the invaders from beyond the great ocean.

When we arrived at the. pekerangi, the inhabitants, seeing our approach, poured out from the village and gazed with wonder at the novel sight of white children paying them a visit. Teyy cried aloud, " E tamariki pakeha !" (children of the white folk), and then from the women of the tribe arose their ancient cry of welcome, " Haere mai ! haere mai ! Naumai e hoa ma ! nauinai!" which, being interpreted, means, " Welcome, welcome, O friends ! Welcome !" All the people of the pa came forth in wonder, and crowded round us to bid us welcome, but we children were greatly terrified, and would not at first consent to enter the gateway. We mistook the noisy greeting of our hosts for a demonstration of hostility, and their fierce and savage appearance did not tend to reassure us. My sister said, " If we go inside, we shall all be killed," and all Ropina's powers of persuasion. were required to induce us at last to enter. Then we were led into the village by the women, who smiled upon us and patted us, trying to calm our fears. Nevertheless, our hearts sank as we went in by the great waharoa with its hideous carved faces glaring down on us as we passed. But no harm befel us and we gradually recovered confidence as we were conducted through lanes and between long rows of whares, over numerous low fences dividing the allotments of the several families, and so to our destination, a whare set specially apart for us. Arrived there, all the people vied with each other in anticipating our wants, and enough food was set before us to have satisfied a score of hungry men: There, in that lone hill pa, inhabited by fierce and savage people,, we passed the night in safety, for the mana of Paora, the chief of the Ngatiwehiwehi, was over us.

When morning came, food was brought, and when we were satisfied, Ropina took us up into the watch-tower of the pa, from whence we could see, far below us, the white surf dashing on the rocky coast, and the bright sea flashing in the rays of the morning sun. Away to the north we saw the bold outline of Kapiti

the sign left by the great ancestor Kupe in ancient times. For what says the old waiata ?

"Tu ke a Kapiti,

Tu ke Mama,

Tu ke Arapaora,

Ko nga, tohu ena o taku tupuna a Kupe."

Which may thus be interpreted : " Stand there Kapiti, Mana, and Arapaora, as signs of our ancestor Kupe." Then Ropina directed our attention to the long sandy beach which stretched before us far away until it was lost to view in the shimmering haze hanging low down over distant Waikanae. The sunlight playing over the shining sands and rippling waves and virgin forests of that fair land made the scene very beautiful to look upon. Ropina told us that our father's home lay three days' journeybevond the furthest visible point. Our hearts sank at the prospect, and we said we should never be able to walk there, for the waywas too long. Thus far had we come in two days' journeyfrom Wellington.

Then we bade farewell to the hospitable people at the pa, and started once more on our way. The Natives crowded to the edge of the bluff, and waved their flax cloaks, crying aloud their farewell : " Haere, haere, ra, koutou ki to koutou kainga; haere ra e hika ma e. Kia, pai te haere !" (Go, go to your home. O children! Go in peace!) And the mana of Ngatitoa was over us as we went. Clambering down the rockycliffs, we wandered slowly along the rough road which lies beneath Paiterangi, till we came to a whare on the hill by the sea-side. Here we found Scotch Jock's Maori wife, a woman named Peti, who told us that Jock was away at Kaikoura whaling. We were greatlypleased when she spoke to us in English, for the sound of our own language once again was welcome indeed. Moreover, the heart of the native woman was warmed to us, and she urged ui to stay the night, but Ropina said we must go on. "Then," she said, "you must stop and have some food." Soon she had put before us potatoes, kumara, and fish; but she knew the love of the pakeha for bread, and set about to supply a substitute for the deficiency. Procuring a root of the rewarewa tree, she took some potatoes, grated them on the natural grater, formed them into little cakes, and baked them in the hot ashes. These cakes were called pakèkè by the Natives. For tea, she made an effusion of the leaves of the hutiwai (the common Native burr or piripiri : Acaena sanguisorbae), and we enjoyed a good meal .before resuming our journey. In parting she told us not to be afraid of Rangihaeta, for he was in the bush retreating to Poroutawhao, and would not fight any more, as the white people had taken Te.Rauparaha prisoner, and if Rangihaeta committed any murder Te Rauparaha would be kept prisoner for life. "You have got over the worst part of the road," she said, "and you will soon be at your father's place at Waikawa." This assurance gave us great joy, and, bidding her good-bye, we resumed, with renewed courage, our journey to Paekakariki. Clambering down by the rocky cliffs to the sea-beach, we wended our way slowly along the rough boulders and stony beach which lie beneath the great precipice of Te Paripari. It was very difficult travelling, and we made but little progress. Ropina, carrying my younger brother, had often to return to assist us over bad places, so that it was past noon when we reached the singular cave or hollow rock which is situated at the base of Te Paripari, the abrupt ending of the Paekakariki range.

There is a curious Maori tradition in connection with this cave, which is not generallyknown. It relates to the journey of
one Hau, a tupuna or ancestor who travelled from Taranaki to Paekakariki in olden days in search of his wife Wairaka, who had been stolen from him by two men, Kiwi and Weka. Hau proceeded down the coast, naming each river and point as he passed along, until he reached this great rock at the base of Te Paripari. In those days the rock was not hollow, but quite solid, so that it barred all progress by the beach. On reaching it, Han heard his wife speaking to her abductors on the further side. Then he uttered a powerful karakia or incantation, by means of which he cleft a passage through the great rock. whereby he passed safely to the other side. Then, sending Wairaka out into the sea to gather
shell-fish, he cast a spell over her and turned her into a rock. We of this time may know the legend to be true, for the rock Wairaka still stands there in the sea and the pierced rock of Te Paripari remains also as a token of the power of Hau. The pakehas suppose is to be merely a work of Nature ; but the Maoris, who know better, call it still "To Ana o Hau"—" The Cave of Hau.”
Leaving the cave, we continued our journey till we came to Paekakariki. Here at that time there was another pa, situated near the site of the present railway station. On arriving at the gateway, we saw gathered in the marae or court-yard a large number of Maoris. One old man was making a speech—shouting, shaking his spear, and rushing about in so terrifying a manner that we thought this surely must be the end, and that we should all be killed. We would not. go in, though our guide and other Maoris tried hard to persuade us, so they brought food to the gateway, and here, as elsewhere, we were well treated. Our guide Ropina, told us that the reason the Natives were so disturbed was that they had received bad tidings. fromHorokiwi, where their tribal friends, were being defeated by the Pakeha. The people of Rangihaeata were retreating up the Paekakariki range through the dense bush.
After rest and refreshment here, we continued our journey, intending to reach Wainui, but night overtook us, and we were tired out. Our guide therefore collected a quantity of wood from the sea beach and made a fire, at which he roasted some potatoes. After our meal, we lay down by the fire and slept.

In the morning when we awoke we found that our blankets were covered with frost. Starting afresh, we reached the Wainui pa after about an hour's walk. A great number of Natives were living here at the time. They made us very welcome, and as the day was Sunday they would not allow us to travel further. They were very strict in their religious observances in those days—they would not even peel their potatoes on Sunday, all such 'work always being done on the previous day.

We continued our journey next morning to Waikanae, the Native women coming part of the way along the sea beach to assist in carrying us over the streams, and having seen us safely atross they returned. At that time Mr William Jenkins was keeping an accommodation house at the mouth of the Waikanae river, and on our arrival at his place he treated us with great kindness. There was then at Waikanae a very large Maori pa with many hundreds of inhabitants, and the distinguished chief William King, afterwards renowned in the Taranaki wars, was living there.

In the morning Mr. Jenkins ferried us across the Waikanae river, and we continued our way to Otaki. When about half-way there we came upon a party of whalers, encamped on the beach. They had been chasing a whale earlier in the day. Seeing us, they called, inviting us to come to their camp and have some food, but we were so alarmed at the rough appearance of the men that we begged Ropina not to go. So we hastened on, along the sandy beach, until we reached the Otaki ' river. Here, near the river mouth, was another large pa with many hundreds of Maori inhabitants, and here, as elsewhere, we were met with loud cries of welcome, and received with every kip.dness.

We slept in the pa, and next morning were ferried across the Otaki river by Mr. Harvey, who told us that we were about six miles only from our father's place. We next reached another very large pa, at Rangiuru, where the Rev. W. Williams was living. Here again the Native people gave us a hearty welcome, the

inhabitants coming out in wonder, crowding round,. and bringing us food. After resting here for about three hours we continued our journey, passing another large pa at the mouth of the Waitohu, where many Natives were living. Thus we fared along the sandy beach until we reached the Waikawa, our destination. Our home was about half a mile from the pa of the Ngatiwehiwehi, which was dose to the mouth of the Waikawa river. The Ngatiwehiwehi, then a powerful tribe who could put hundreds of fighting men in the field, are now represented by a very small remnant. Arriving at the pa a great cry of welcome arose from. the Natives, who assembled to meet 113, and then we were led by our guide to our father. Never have I forgotten the joy and happiness of that meeting—what tales we had to tell of the wonderful journey, the are of Ropina, and the kindness of all the Natives, .



In those days the district was a perfect terrestrial paradise. Beautiful forests adorned the hills and plains, the woods extending to within a mile and a half of the sea-beach, while scattered along the coast were most beautiful lagoons. Those were the days—tha good old days—and never more can they return. Our material comforts may have increased, but so have our pains and troubles, and many diseases then unknown, and the weather even has increased in severity. Things seem since then to have somehow gone wrong, and it is a dull sort of world compared with what it was then—the sun itself does not seem to me to shine as brightly now as then. We cannot grow such crops now as the Natives grew in the old days—water-melons, peaches, crops, and fruits of all kinds have degenerated, and everything seems flat, stale, and unprofitable. Those good old times ! Before taxes, duties, or public works were invented ! Who cared then whether we owned a coat or approved-of shoes and stockings ? Men and women alike were bigger and stouter, and more self-reliant.. Moue* was of little use—in fact almost the only purpose to which the Maoris applied it was to make rings for their fingers, or, drilling a hole through the coin, hang it in their ears.

Remote though we were in those early days from the centrcs of population, we had our compensations. There was a sense of freedom and independence difficult to realise by those who have never been under like conditions,. and notwithstanding occasional hardship and privation, there was a certain gratification in being thrown upon one's own resources. The discipline was in a high degree beneficial to the pioneer colonists, and brought out their best qualities. In later years we had the satisfaction of seeing the settlement take a fresh start, and become one of the most important districts in the colony. All honour to the brave pioneers —the true fathers of New Zealand ! They deserve to be held in. grateful remembrance by those who, coming later, found the way prepared for peaceful and profitable settlement.

Only thost who saw the country in its virgin state can realise the prodigality of nature and the beauty that has for ever passed away, leaving in the . settled districts not a trace behind. Mountains and plains alike were clothed with magnificent forest, abounding with bell-birds, pigeons, and tuis, and vocal at sunrise with their music; while the beautiful lakes swarmed with native


clucks. The changes which have followed settlement in this island must have been sees to be credited. Since 1855 the woods have 0-one and with them the, teeming and beautiful bird and insect life to which they gave shelter. Not less wonderful is the change in climate. Fifty years ago the summers were hotter and the winters milder—in fact, almost like the summers of the present time. The Maoris wete a diligent and industrious people, cultivating extensive crops all along the coast and trading the produce to the settlers, who depended almost entirely on this source of supply. Scattered in all directions were groves of peach-trees, laden with choicest fruit. At any part of the coast, during the fruit season, tons of the finest apples, peaches, and water-melons could be obtained. Around every populous Native settlement might be seen the graceful indigenous growth of cabbage-trees, tree-ferns, and the plumed toi-grass ; the pretty light bush mingled here and there with karaka trees, bringing out the lighter shades of green foliage. What a contrast now ! The pas and kaingas have vanished--the little gardens of Eden are overgrown with rank weeds, and patches of country, then lovely beyond all description, are now the picture of waste and desolation. The Natives of those days grubbed in wheat, which, when threihed, was carried on their backs to the nearest hand-mill. I have seen the seed-wheat scattered on newly-cleared ground without any covering. whatever. The native birds would not touch it, and it produced heavy crops. All kinds of fruits and vegetables thriveri luxuriantly, and there was a total absence of blight of any kind. For tea the Natives, and the settlers also, when supplies ran short, used the native "tea-tree," or manuka.

We settlers of the old days, and those who came after us, owe much to the Maori people of half a century ago. We should never forget their good feeling ; their temperate and friendly conduct towards a scattered and unprotected population of six thousand souls, Nearly all the shops and stores were without shutters ; scarcely a window was fastened at .night; yet we slept in unbroken security. The Natives might also any night have risen and plundered, and even massacred, the inha- itants, but the confidence reposed in them was not abused. Living, as I have clone, a life-time among the Maoris, I have never until recent years fa3tened door or window. Now, if I hear of a robbery, I say : " No Maori has done it," and I am almost invariably ri The; e were sturdy pioneers in the days of old, ;.tild bravely the held on

to their holdings.



It was in 1843 that the trouble in the Hutt Valley began an 1 Governor Grey in 1846 lost no time in visiting the neglecte set blement. He took prompt . measures to remove the Nativ intruders from the district, even refusing to listen to the reques that they might, on abandoning their land, receive compensatio for their crops. He required a specific day to be named on whic they would evacuate the valley. • His action in thus taking hi ground, instead of approaching them as a suitor, had immediat effect, and an address signed by most of the influential chiefs including Te Rauparaha, was traasmittecl to the Governor, asking for his protection and assistance. Much of this, however, was fo the purpose of gaining time, while some of the chiefs wer determined to precipitate matters and to commit the rest by an act of open hostility. With this view, at the beginning of March, 1846, a party passed *the s f the troops in the valley of the

l'`1=rritt, raur-a-e-red a number of settlers, an-R---a-D un ered sixteen houses retiring before they could be attacked. The country at the head, of the valley was so inaccessible that the Governor hesitated tO-, pursue the murderers, and adopted the more judicious course 0,, establishing a „post at Porirua, whereby he commanded their only


?1 i1 .. ..,._ _linOrcoria-munication with -the coast, and thign off their retreat.
t i ---, : The plan wa-T-s-ncassivi, The Natives had very scanty means o 1 subsistence in the forests ; and their rear being threatened the f ;abandoned the Hutt district and fell back on Pahautanui, thus' removing the field of operations from the neighbourhood of the settlements. In the beginning of the following month a barbarouk murder was committed by certain Natives under the protection ok,., Rangihaeta, who not only refused to give them up, but declared,

the road between Wellington and the coast " tapu," and otherwis%,.. acted in a hostile manner. It became necessary to put a stop tol,,, outrages of this kind, and as a check troops were sent to occupy:0 the point at Porirua. Shut in as Wellington was by forest-covered",,'-


mountains, it became evident, that means must be immediate13(. taken to open communication with the interior for purposes of defence as well as for the extension of settlement. Within a fewi' . weeks Governor Grey had the work in hand—a work which should:: have been carried out long before) in which case the difficultk' might never have arisen.

From this period there were signs of promise that t1-4, . A.;,.

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seize the tobacco, and a struggle bagain in the praseace of the wh)1 tribe. Each endeavoured to get .hold of tha tobacco ; thea the closed, each striving to dash the other to the ground. They foug like two bull-dogs until things lookel so serious that the p3pl intervened and separated them by force: In the ead Paara hat

to retire discomfited, vowing that he would renver the toba36.: that belonged to his pa,kelia. Finding that other chiefs were abold'


to join with Pa,9ra and compel restitution, Tohutoha and hi4,:;:_. followers despatched it by night as a gift to RIngihacata Poroutawhao. Information soon reached Paora, and armint" himself with his mere, he rushed furiously to the pi, in the night Flourishing his 'weapon, he bounded backwairds and forwards; giving vent to his indigaation. "It will be heard of all th7ou7b4

3 ..4

the country !" he exclaimed. " We shall be ca,11e1 the robb2r 3 oft, the pakeha, and the shame will rest upon m3. My paella will g. away, taking with him. all his taemgi, (pods)." Ot'aer chie4t; followed with speeches, calling on Tohutohu to get the t'31311,-n4.

.... back, for it was stolen property, and if it were known to be ia tli._..., 'possession of their friend Raagih_aeata, it would get him. in to troublk: again with the pakeha. Tohutohu then replied, with mar.q0i excitement and gesticulation in the Native fashion. nouHshingl: his mere, he would run about tea steps aad deliver a se.-Itoace-,;,.:t

then, turning and rallthig the 131,111. 3 di -3 .)allr,.;3in tliC a34

direction, he would give further velt to his wrath ; ru min thut4 backwards and forwards till he had finisherl w1,5 he hal t..) say!.;-.1: BrieFly, it was to the effect till', he would never he:tr of su.:th ail thing as giving up the property.

· ,•"

Seeing that they ware uqable to inane:y.3e Tohatohu and hiS:j. people, Paora and his supporters determined to lax the mattef:..1: before Rangihaeata himself. So they set out for i'arwitawhao,j where, on arrival, they were ma,de welcome. The usuaU,!:

* ,

preliminaries of Maori etiquette being duly disposed of, Paorx.'.4 entered on his disagreeable task, telling Ringihaeata that the0, welcome gift he had accepted was stolen goods. " Thqt tohacco,';.1 he said, " Tohutohu took by mum (robbery) from my plkehaf., 4 Rangihaeata replied, "1 was not aware when I accepted the gift forl myself and my tribe that Tohutohu had stolen the goods from vont...4 pakeha, or I would not have received it from him. And now, 6 my;._ t friends, I will collect what remains of the tobacco, which 1101 already been. divided amongst my people, and return it to you.';-::. He then called the tribe together and told them . that the tobacc6i;.-. . must be returned thpaor,,,,I, it has b3.,1 N b 0 le a from t1r3 pakehaZ-.;


The people replied that a good deal hat l ,araadif bBert consuaisk,

· - Hf •

but they would return all that was left. A collegtion WtIA at on.c._
.- . --,1:.
made, and about thirty pounds in all Wa3 gathered and laid a%

.Paora's feet, and was faithfully returned by him to my father.

ILEMINI ES 3CENC OP AN OLD cor,9xis-r. 15

father, tl-r)agh be fully appreciatel tho ser Pic:».03.:13r3.1 by Paora, was by no means content with the in•)ro espcially a thn acturd off3ade,r had no hand in. such in.complete restituHoa ai

been made. There was at the time (1815) ft 'Mae, Stnaidall at

AVaikanae ; MajorDariefwas the local Magistrate, and Me John Knocks interprater--. -A.ccor.liagly, my fal-bnr seat my, brother to the Magistrae to obtain. a warrant for the arroit Toluitolm. This Major Durie refused, alleging that the attempt to enforce such a waiirant might occasion t breach of the peace. Ire adviso

my father to write to the Governor, Sir G3:)rge Geey, and apply for compensation for his loss. This advice %Val taken. My father wrote, giving all particulars, and some months afterwards the Governor came in person to 'Waikawa, accompinied by Mr Donald McLean, well-known in later years as Native Migister. The Governor notided that they had come about the stolen tobacco, and a larg3 meeting of Natives was held. The remit of the c:mference was that Tohui5ohu and his people agre3d to pay for the stolen cask of tobacco. Payment was not mv.13, how3ver,

about four years later, when my father accepted twenty hag of wheat in satisfaction of hi § claim.

It was in the year 1847 that the RIngitikei block was bought from the resident Natives by the Government, and the sett1er3 from Wellington began to drive their stock to the land they had purchased on the north side of the Rangitikoi River. It, Witi the-i that another serious drawback to the progress of settlement aros(i. .11,tngihaE.,,a4..-a, who had settled at Porou:Awhao, onthesea-beach, set Up a toll-gate, and wheu settlers came along with their stock

would stop them and demand t011---sornOtiffies ;IA Much as 110. E

they refused to pay, they had to stop all night on the beach. The blackmail was carried on for SOVOral months unchecked, until it threatened to prit a stop to settlement in the Rtnwitikei district. Governor Grey was in a difficult position. lie desired, naturally, to keep up friendly relations with the pwer.Ful chiefs, and was too prudent a man to make demands that he could not attempt to enforce without imperilling the poldce of the ccurttry ; and intolerable as tl-ie conduct of Ruigihaeata, was in the eye of Europeans, he was quite within his rights according to Maori ideas. With characteristic astutenos, Sir Gearge Grey sugge,4ted that Ria ngihaeatashould make a road from the sea-beach to Poroubawhao) Promisingthat if he did so, the Government would msist 1 with

money. The chief assented, abolished his toll-gate, and constructed the road ; and. the Rangitikei settlers had no farther troul)le from I

hat quarter. ( irritation \Sr;V-1 ;4)11101CAAIICH (..:1.11.LiA by
ill-judged interference with settlers by, or at, the Li stauce of

isSiOnarieS, Some, of whom were very jealous of the -'i spread of scqUement, which weakened their influence with tIv..)



In 1856 RanAihaeta was attacked by measles in a very severe form. Wishing to. visit Otaki, ill as he was, he got his groom drive him thither in his trap. On reaching the Waikawa, an feeling very hot and. feverish, he stopped the trap and plunge into the river. He went on to °tali, where he soon became much worse, and died in about two days. The body was taken by the Natives to Poroutawhao to be buried beside his wife. Hundreds of Natives assembled for the tangi ; there was a great procession alon the sea-beach, great feasting and much indulgence in strong drink at the grog shanties, which were then to be found along the coast. To this dissipation and excess of this period old residents trace the- beginning of the falling-off in numbers of the West Coast tribes. Deadly and destructive diseases, hitherto unknown among • then; made their appearance, carrying off old and young. But the'• Natives themselves failed to see the connection between the diseases by which they were addicted, and the drunkenness anck immorality to which those diseases were so largely due. nein fathers, they said, worshipped the old gods, and died of old age • the new religion of the pakeha had brought strange diseases thadf death with it. Even now, this notion is widely prevalent, a/144' there is a disposition to revert to the old ceremonies and4 superstitions. Whatever benefits Christianity and civilisation marl have brought to the Maoris, the changes have in. many points noV. been in the way of improvement. There is a tendency to separatei, themselves from the Churches, against which the missionaries of beni find themselves labouring in vain, and I know even now of educated: Natives who consult the tohunga.

Sir George Grey's first experience in setting the Natives to road-making succeeded so well that he maie it a matter of policy, and engaged a number of the Ngatiwehiwehi at half-a-crown a day41 on the Wellington-Paekakariki road. The tribe had no horses---t

in fact a horse was seldom_ seen in their district—and they had

ft I great ambition to possess °Ile. So they formed a kind of company,v

set to work diligently on the road, and when they had earned enough money they went to Welliag,ton and bought a mare,.having,4 agreed that each one of the joint proprietors wa§ to have a foal.';' The purchase was a very engrossing piece of business, but wa -completed at last to the satisfaction of all concerned. But the .incident brou.2:ht froul-.)le to one of the shareholders. Passing a


baker's shop when he felt hungry, and seeing no one in charge, he quietly entered, stole a loaf, and concealed it under his blanket. But .he had been seen, and had not gone far before he found himself in the hands of the police. He was brought before the magistrate in due course, aftd sentenced to two or three weeks' incarceration in. the Wellington goal. His companions, returning to ,Araikawa with their purchase, named the mare Whareherehere (pri ion-house), in memory of the adventure. The tribe could not make enough of its first horse, and led poor Whareherehere a hard


It was very laughable to see the Maoris learning to ride. Our rope-walk was their favourite practice-ground, and I once saw the hill which over-looked it covered with noisy and excited spectators—men, women, and children. They were holding a kind of race with the one mare to discover the best rider. The first had not ridden far before te fell to the ground, amid cries of " Hurrah ! He is down—there he lies !" With much shouting and laughing they caught the horse and another tried his skill. Racing along the track he came in without mishap, and was at once surrounded by a crowd, hurrahing, and declaring him to be the best. Then they crowded round the panting mare, which was almost ready to 'drop with fatigue, exclaiming, "What a beautiful animal she is !"

In those days the price of flour in Wellington was £2 per hundredweight. It was often difficult to obtain, and sometimes it was not procurable at any price. My father used to buy wheat

and send it to Rangiuru, Otaki, to be ground. There was only one

mill in. the diit:ict—an old-fashioned hand-mill belonging to Mr

Taylor. We uied to send down two bushels at a time by a Maori.

The mill was so old and inefficient that it used to take the Maori

and myself tw) days of 'heavy work to grind the two bushels, and

Mr Taylor u.;e I to retain half the meal as his fee for the use of the 'mill. It was aa udproitable bargain for us, and even when we returned with half the meal we had no means of sifting it. ,S0metiale.3 wo could get neither wheat or flour, and then our fare w.ti potatoes a.ld pork three times a day. For tea we used to get flL iuka (tea-tree) and dip it in the kettle, or, for a change, the

U • iwai or piripiri (corrupted to "biddy-biddy "by the pakeha) and whn tired of the3e we roastei maize as a, substitute for coffee. We I.volld go to the bush and get some of the hard rough .roots of the ,rewarewa (holeysuckle), and use them as graters for potatoes, from

Which we made potaLio cake3 (call:;c1 pakeke by the Maoris) n.'3 sub;titute for bread. No beef or mutton could. be had in these days, and for .very black sugar we pia a shilling per lb.

There was at that time in Otaki a Roman Catholic missionary named Comte, who was greatly trusted and beloved by the Native people.He took great interest in all their concerns, and never


interfered with Maori lands. His chief object was the education and evangelisation of their children; but he did .not neglect their. material welfare, and did his best to engage them in profitable and useful occupations. He introduced flour-mills, rope-walks, and bullock-drays, induced them to open stores to trade among themselves, and got them a schooner—the Elizabeth—to convey.1 their produce to ,Wellington. He toiled hard among the hundreds' of people, and with great success, as the flourishing settlement of Puke karaka, near Otaki, sufficiently proved; and when be departed 4. the Natives lost a veritable "shining light." With that absence of self-reliance and resourse characteristic of the Maori who has come into contact with civilisation, they lost heart when he departed, and relapsed, until by degrees the signs of the good work he had done among them disappeared.

When I arrived at Waikawa in 1845, there was a settlement of . whalers living with Native women at Otaki according to Maori custom. They all had small properties, given to them hy the relatives of their female partners. In the whaling season they used to cross over to Kapiti Island, and after it was over return to the mainland. Their names were Hector M'Donald, Harvey, James Cootes, Samuel Taylor, Ransfield, John Curley, Thomas Laughton, Hamilton, John Hammond, Robert Dury, Waistcoat

Westcott), and J. Carpenter. Mr Skipworth was a gentleman living at Rangiuru, and engaged in sheep-farming. Four of his half-caste children (three daughters and ore son) are still living. Kipa te Whatanui is the eldest son, and Mrs Thos. Roach and Mrs Thos. Cootes are two of the daaphters. Their exandfather wa the famous Ngatiraukawa chieftain, Te Whatanui.

When I lived in Wellington in. 1842 the whole of the hills were covered with dense forest., which was cut down and burned off by I degrees, to make room for houses and gardens, as the settlers occupied their hill-side sections. The houses were of very primitive character, consisting of titaii interlaced with. kareao (upplejack), and then dabbed with clay. In the vicinity were several fortified pas belonging to the Ngatiawa tribe, containing four or five hundred inhabitants. Their principal chief was Te Puni. (miscalled "E Puni" by the settlers), and. their fighting chief. \ts Wharepori. If these Natives had. been so diiposed they could have risen and crushed the pakeha ; but the relations' between Oen] were always of a friendly character. Conscioul of their inferiority in numb, Ole Bettler8 always prudently liaintained etfectin e a show of stren:2,0 I a.s possils1(•.

I can remember the rejoicings in the year 1844, in which all the settlers took part, when Governor Fitzroy was re-called. Bon-fires were lighted, and as the. Governor stepped into the boat his effigy W5 burnecl, while ale, .Welling!-Jon. band. played " The King of the

Cannibal Islands." This was the first brass band formed in Wellington, and the following are the names of the original bandsmen: Joseph Masters, John Webber, Henry Overend, Joe Grimaldi, Charlie Howe, Robert Dune, John AVoods, Edward Bevan, George Bevan, William Dodds.

In 1842 a fire, which broke out in Lambton Quay, caused great loss of property. It started on the premises of Mr Lloyd, baker, and spread to alavpoint (where the Stewart Dawson building now stands), destroying some thirt.i.,-4-five business houses, ui.d resulting in a total damage estimated at £16,000.

In later years, when the 'Maori King movement spread through the North Island, the West Coast Natives came under its influence. in 1860 the King flag was hoisted at Otaki, and all the Ngatiwebiwehi, save the old chief Paora, joined the King party. Paora used all his powers of persuasion to prevent his tribe from joining, but his efforts were in vain. Most of the Ngatiawa,

Waikanae, with Wi Tako, joined the Otaki Maoris at Pukekara,ka; as well as some hundreds of Natives along the coast, Wi Tako, Heremaia, and Rape being the leading chiefs of the King party of Pukekaraka. Heremaia, wanting rigging for the flag-staff, came to me and gave me the order for all the necessary ropes. These he had tarred, and when the staff was finished and rigged up it resembled the mast of a ship. The Maoris placed a tatooed image clothed with a mat at the foot of the staff, and said it was their ancestor. The King flag was hoisted daily, and guards patrolled i;ound the staff day and night. Thav appointed magistrates and policemen, issued summonses in the king's name, and ignored all summonses issued under the Queell's authority, saving that they belonged to the King. They drdled their men like European troops, and posted guards at night at the Pukekaraka bridge and at the Waitohu. A second large meeting-house was built, and

have seen. about three hundred King Natives holding meetings at night. They would get very much excited when the heard bad news from the districts where -fighting was going on. One day letter came from the " King," .ordering them to take up arms against the settlers and a great meeting was held to consider the


subject. I went to the meeting-house to hear and see what was done.

One of the chiefs rose and said : " The ship is on lire at Taranaki. Now let the eels of Otaki eat the fish of Otaki, and the eelsof 'Taranaki eat the fish of Taranaki." .Many spoke, vounselling violence ; but Wi Tako wa,nled those ass,irn bled of the I ifficulties in which suR.11 a course Nvuuld invol Own]. The runanga (council), he sa i d, was establis d to lay down 1;

.ovs for the good of the island, and he was opposed to the further'

,shedding of blood. " Let those who want to ficrht " he said, " go to the seat


of war. I am faithful to the kingdom till it dies, but will not countenance bloodshed nor ally myself with mad Hauhau. prophets." Heremaia said that so long as the military were kept away from the district there would be no disturbance ; but that he looked with suspition on the movements of the Governor and thel, , confiscation of Native lands. Hape said : The Governor has set-,ii! fire to the ferns of Taranaki; and the smoke will cover the whole?' island!' "Let 9ur warfare be of the lips alone," Wi Tako replied. "If this e the case our path will be long and our days many. Let it be seen that this is our intention—we are not going .:,tr to arise and fight." His counsel prevailed with the assembly, and the runanga decided that the people of the Otaki district should not rise.

In 1862 Sir George Grey received from certain Natives in Otaki44 an assurance of loyalty and information of a real or supposed plot on the part of some of the followers of the "King" to rise and ti; destroy the Europeans in their district. Without loss of time he t visited Otald in person, and sent a letter to Wi Tako at t Pukekaraka to come to the Mission School with all his men, as he wished to hold a meeting there. Wi Tako sent a letter in reply, to this effect :—" I cannot come to see you. You come to me and I will talk to you." Sir George Grey rejoined :—" I cannot come under the King's flag.; but I will meet you at Pukekaraka bridge." To this Wi Tako assented, and, accompanied by all the " kiag " Natives, met the Governor at the bridge. Sir George told them the outlines of the policy he hoped to pursue—not to renew- military operations, but to retain his old Maori friends anfi reduce the number of his enemies. He explained that they were injuring themselves by carrying out the " king's " orders, and he was sorry to see that the majority of the Otaki people appeared to have identified themselves with the disloyal proceedings of hoisting the flag of the so-called king. Wi Tako answered : "Salutations ,t to you,- Governor Grey. This is our word to you, hearken : Waitara was the source of evil, not the king. You go to Waikato it and talk to him. Go to the roots. If the king is brought to t. naught by your plan, well and good—the branches will dry up." Heremaia said : "We will not give up the king or his flag. If the Governor attacks our king we shall be evil—and do not accuse us of murder." Sir George returned, recognising that he had made :).! no impression ; but the interview may have had some effect on his subsequent action ; for he afterwards withdrew the troops from Taranaki to Auckland, and took measures to attack the king in his own country, a good deal to the surprio of the disaffe(ted Natives.

Archdeacon (afterwards Bishop) Hadfield Was impressed by the imminent danger of an open rupture at Otaki. Hostile parties from the King Country were constantly coming and going, urging the local Natives to exterminate the settlers ; Maori sentries were


Mission and the Church. If the Otaki College were re-constructed and established as a centre of education for all the Maori children t of the West Coast, the State might give valuable assistance if many ways. Many of the West Coast Native children have now no opportunities.whatever of education. The college had many advantages—large grounds for garden and pasture where the children could be trained in tilling small plots of their own, and .receiving unconsciously lessons in self-help and self-reliance. No more eligible spot for such a purpose could be found in the Island, nor a more comfortable home for the Maori children. The Archdeacon's farm was carried on by Mr Woods and sons ; he had the -best shorthorn cattle and merino sheep on the coasts; a flourishing dairy was one of the features of the farm, and the settlers used to go there for their supply of butter.



In the year 1864 the new " religion " of the disaffected -atives had taken a great hold ih the Otaki district. It was called Hau," and its diiciples " Hauhau," and it had been revealed to their prophets that they were the ten Lost Tribes of Israel. They worshipped around a pole planted in. the ground, chanting in an unknown tongue as they marched or danced in a circle, all fixing their eve- -on the apex of the pole where "the Jehovah spirit" was supposed to be sitting. As the ring revolved the excitement of the devotees grew wilder till the movement became a furious race. In their excitement, often foaming at the mouth, and yelping

Han, hau, hau," they were more suggestive of a pack of mad dogs than of human creatures. Their own name for the sex was

Pai marire," and these words were often repeated among much quite unintelligible gibberish. This is a sample of one of their chanted ,incarnation i or " prayers " :—" God the Father (ban), God the Son (hau, hau), God the Holy Ghost (bau, hau, hau) instruct us. Attention ! Jehovah ! Stand at ease ! (ha.u).

out ! (hau, hau, bau). Big rivers, long rivers, big mountains and $eas. Attention ! (hau, hau, hau)." This formula was repeated daily at sunrise and sunset, and from our house, a mile away, we could hear the horrid cries of the fanatics at their worship.

In connection with this superstition I had an adventure which nearly cost me my life. Hearing that an old Maori friend was lying ill at the pa, and that his death was daily expected, I rode to the place, fastened up my horse, and went to the tent where my friend was lying. Entering, I sat down by him ; he took my hand and said, "I am very ill, I shall die." I asked him what remedy lie had been taking, and he replied that the Hauhau prophet had been treating him. Pointing to a shed, some distance down the hillside, he said, " That is where the prophet is living." As I turned and looked I saw the tohunga, coming out of the shed, a red sash around his waist, feathers in his hair, and a Native spear in

his hand. He came slowly at first, blowing and puffing like a mad

.dog, talking gibberish, jumping, shouting, and flourishing his spear ;

then he rushed savagely towards the tent. Hearing his cries, my

72v, friend said" Run, run I on are in danger, he does not like ybu
.* Ore; it is against his law for .pakehas to see me." I saw plainly

enough the savage meant' mischief, 'so I. bade my friend a hasty

good-bye, leaving panting with weakness and excitement. I


ran smartly to my horse, unhitched him and mounted, just escapi the spear the .proithet threw after me. I had seen that my frien was beyond human help, and was not surprised to learn two dayi afterwards that he was dead.

In 1852 my brother, George Bevan, kept an accommodatiol house at the mouth of the Waikawa river, and carried on th rope-making as well. He did a large trade with the Maoris flax and other produce, and had his own schooner, the Willia trading between Wellington and the coast. The master's nam was Thomas Cribb, and he had with him a Maori sailor name( Moko. There was in those days a good deal of trade also betwee Otaki and Wellington, and several small schooners eonveve goods and produce to and fro. One of these, the Emma Jane belonged to Hector Macdonald, and my father bought her for th Waikawa trade. She had not been running long before she wa wrecked in a heavy gale while lying off Kapiti. Old settlers ad' Otaki often used to come to Waikawa and spend days at o

accommodation-house, and there were many travellers who passe( on foot along the coast in thcse days. At that time the Ohal river ran into the Waikawa, making it a large river and convenien for sailing vessels. At the river mouth, where there arc; now onl sand-bills, there was a piece of beautiful flat land with a lar.r lake, one of the most picturesque I have seen. It abounded I fish, and was full of native ducks and other game. Hundreds o Maoris found occupation in fishing and collecting pipi (a Nativ bivalve) on the sea-beach. When the schooner William was see crossing the bar, crowds of Maoris would asseml:le on the beach to see her come in, and to render assistance as required. As soon a she entered the river they would call for the guide-rope, which th skipper would throw to them, and they would draw her up th( river to our.accommodation-b ouse. Next day they would all corn( over from the pa to see the new goods.

At that time the Ngatiwehiwehi and the .,Ngatitukorehu o Ohau were powerful hapus, and the people were very industrious, We carried on a large trade with them, buying flax and other produce; keeping stores of various kinds to supply their requirements. It was a pleasure to see the beautiful crops they had under cultivation—the more remarkable, as they tilled the soil with sharpened sticks, being unable to afford the implements of the pakeha. All the flax was prepared by hand, the phormium leaves being scraped patiently, bit by bit, with mussel shells ; yet, by this primitive method, working hard all day in the flax swamps, they would produce hundreds of tons of fibre. One of their chief enjoyments was to sell produce. Hundreds of baskets filled with potatoes or flax would be piled in long roirs, and a smart man of business—his sole garment a red or blue blanket, 4t, steelyard.


balance in his hand, and slate and pencil suspended between the folds of his robe—would attend to the checking as accurately and expeditiously as the most experienced .tally-clerk. The Natives had large numbers of horses and cattle running wild on their tribal lands. • The sea yielded fish' in abundance. They would go out in. large fishing canoes, and return laden with hapuka and snapper. Theit farmAnd garden produce included honey, pumpkins, melons, marrows, cucumbers, and other gourds, onions, wheat, maize ; they grew choice varieties of fruits—plums, quinces, apples, cherries, grapes, peaches. The mention of peaches brings back some of the pleasantest recollections of those good old times

Every village had its little Church, and the Maori people livez-e-as-attentive to their religious ordinances as they were diligent in their daily occupations. Looking, as I sometimes do, on the decaying ruins of an old-time West Coast kainga,.I find something very touching in the view. Involuntarily my thouglAs wander back to the happy, peaceful, industrious people, so numerous then, and now so few, and to the terrestrial paradise they inhabited sixty years ago. Never can I pass these once-populous sites without deep emotion, and memories crowd upon me of my good Maori friends of old. When I came to them first, I never saw a person suffering from any bodily complaint, and when they s istained injuries their wounds healed with wonderful rapidity.

At Otaki, from about 1851 to 1862 Mr Eager and his sons carried on a store, doing an extensive trade with the Natives. About 1856 Folev'i circus visited Wellington, and my brother arranged with Air Foley to bring his company to Waikawa. This was the first show of the kind that the Maoris had seen, and their excitemeat was intense. Hundreds came in from all parts of the district, and for a time they seemed unable to think or talk of anything else. "Pablo Fanque " in his tight-rope dancing specially took their fancy—particularly as regards the women, who seemed as if they would all fall in love with him.

It was on the night of the 23rd January, 1855, that the dreadful earthquake occurred. In our districtit was preceded by a violent storm of rain, which fell in torrents, and the air was very hot and sulphurous. Then came a roaring noise and a terrible shock, followed by many others. Mr and Mrs Kebbell and two other travellers on their way to Wellington were at our accommo­dation house at the time. They had arrived just before the rain storm, and their horses had been put into the stable. When the first shock came I was seated by a large double brick "clumnoy, with a child on my knee. I ran outside, and was thrown on my face, the child falling some distance ahead of me. All in tht room ran out of doors, and all were similarly thrown off their feet. Mr and Mrs Kebbell were in the parlour, and were unable to get ou •


as the door was jammed, and would not open. The parlour eti-imney came down into the room, and they had a very narrow•

-cape. We had to knock the door in before they could get out:, Mr Kebbell asked for a Bible, and began to read, but had not read far before another violent shock came. We all fled from the house, leaving the, open Bible on the table. We were all in a , terrible state of confusion, and could hEar the cries of terrifiedS animals and the horses neighing in the stable. The kitchena


chimney, near where I had been sitting, was shaken to the ground:4 and the room was, fall of bricks. Next morning Mr and Mrs a Kebbell returned to Manawatu to find what harm they had 'sustained. They found that their flour-mill was levelled to the ground, and decided not to re-build it there, so they rerncved,1 such of the machinery as was not destroyed, and re-erected it in Wellington. We were so distracted that we could neither eat nor 14 sleep. In the morning we saw that the sea-waves had come up to 0... the front of the house, leaving hundreds of fish stranded on the sand. The hills were cracked in all directions, and our fine lake /4 had disappeared for ever. All that remained of it were hundreds 4' of eels, high and dry, where the beautiful expanse of water had been only a few hours before.




In the year 1856 I decided to start a rope-factory at Waikawa, where I leased a run from the Maoris, and there I established my rope-works and carried on sheep-farming as well. I was soon enabled to develop'a large trade with the Maoris, from whom I bought hundreds of tons of flax fibre. It was splendidly dressed, and well adapted for the manufacture of the finer class of articles. I exhibited at Dunedin, Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide, and Vienna, and was awarded prizes at all these places. Things went satisfactorily between the Maoris and myself till the year 1858, when the tribe began to dispute with their chief Paora concerning the rent of my run. One day the whole tribe waited on me and instructed me not to pay any money to Paora, but to pay it to them instead. Failing this they threatened to drive away all my sheep to the sea-beach. I saw Paora regarding the matter. He said Potatau had been made king, and that one of his edicts was that no more land was to be leased or sold to any European, and no public roads were to be made through Native lands. Potatau had guaranteed them immunity from the action of European laws, and the Maoris believed him. Paora insisted on my paying him the rent as formerly. I was in a quandary, thardly knowing which course to pursue, when the whole of the tribe again waited on me within a few days' time and demanded payment of the rent of the run. I told them I would not recognise them in the matter. Immediately the whole wild spirit was aroused within them, and about 100 men and women went, and, having mustered my sheep, placed them in a small paddock near my house. I informed Paora, of what had happened. He told me to let the sheep go. I did so, and Paora came and stayed at my house. The next day the Natives sent me word that they intended fetching in the sheep again. Paora, finding that the whole of the tribe had turned against him, went to Otaki and obtained the assistance of a number of his nearest relatives in order to keep the sheep on the run. His daughter, my wife, and several others came from Otaki, and when the tribe mustered the sheep, and were about to turn them into the small paddock, our party

rrushed savagely at them in an attempt to frustrate their purpose. Then followed a scene of the wildest confusion and uproar, as each Party contended with the other in an attempt to obtain posseskon of the sheep. The trouble continued for half a day, at the end of Which time both combatants and sheep, of which several were klhed during the affray, were exhausted. However, our party was


victorious, and it was only by extraordinary luck that bloodshe was avoided. Another meeting between Paora and the tribe wal held, but the chief would not agree to their terms. Finding themselves baffled in their attempts either to obtain payment a the rent, or possession of the sheep, they unanimously decided td. obtain revenge by turning loose all their dogs to worry my sheep!' I had no redress, and was eventually compelled to send them Mr Cook's, in the Manawatu, in order to save the flock from annihilation. And so ended the trouble.

A Maori tangi in the "good old days" was a sight to be;:' remembered, and I have often felt indigaant at the manner irk; which tangis are conducted now-a-days. In the old days the deatht of a chief was signalled by thousands of voices being raised in the peculiar lament for the dead, and at such times I have seen. the, old women cutting themselves with shells, while to thef, accompaniment of freely flowing blood they sang their weird song$ of humiliation. I have seen an old woman hold a piece of flint or glass as keen as a razor in her right hand, and this she would deliberately place against the left side of her waist. Then itt would be slowly drawn upwards to the left shoulder, and a stream. of spurting blood would follow the deep incision. Then, in the same deliberate manner, the gash would be con.tiaued dowawardsv, across the breast to the short ribs on the right side. The glass or. flint would then be taken in the left hand, and the same process; of gashing would be gone through, making a cross of blood on the breast. Some of the sights witnessed by me in 1848 were horrible: in the extreme. I have seen numbers of women standing in rows before the delft body of their chief, screaming and wailing, their bodies and bands quivering in. an extraordinary manner, while they l,

gashed themselves till they were covered in blood from head to foot. This custom has gradually become extinct, and often of late years I have felt indignant at the sight of some degenerate hussv at a tangi flourishing a piece of flit with which she was very careful 1. to avoid making so much as the least scratch on her dusky skin. To my mind this departure from an ancient custom betrays a want of deep 'natural affection which was possessed by the old type of - Maori. Some of them even refuse to shed either tears or blood at the loss of their relatives or friends. They are a degenerate lot, .t and not nearly such noble characters as they were in the good old days. During the progress of the tangi speeches of welcome to the departed spirit would be made. One ran as follows : "Come here my father, come to look on us. I have de e,rted from elder' it brother and your father." (Meaning their buriod bodies).

r,i.he Maori race is quickly disappearing, and where the so-called blessings of our civilisation have taken a firm hold of them the process of decay is materially hastened, The Maoris say there


have been no remarkable Magical signs vouchsafed to them since the arrival of the Rangi Pai (Gospel). There has been nothing seen in this island like the happenings when men were tapu, and the karakia had full power to work their mystical wonders. One of the signs alleged to have been given in this island was the Rao Kutia (the closed or biddet1 sun) at mid-day, when darkness overspread the land and the stars could be seen twinkling for two hours before the return of daylight. Our fathers (they say) saw this sign, but there are now nq signs given us like those of former days before the pakeha came with his Rangi Pai (gospel), his strange habits, and still stranger diseases. They have banished the tapu, and we are no longer immune from diseases which kill us continually—diseases of which our men in the old days knew nothing, but died only when bent beneath the weight of many years —the natural end of life.

I have no confidence in our being able to civilise the Maori We have forced upon them our religion and civilisation, often. with the Bible in one hand and the rum bottle in the other, and then we have flattered ourselves that we have made Christians of them. The idea—noble thought it was—of being able to civilise the Maori until he stood on the same plane as ourselves, is now exploded, and their numbers are diminishing year by year.

The makutu is still the weapon of the weak, of him who has no other means of endeavouring to obtain redress for his wrongs. There can be no doubt that this belief exercised a strong restraining influence in their old state of society, where the law of force generally prevailed, and it exercised a potent influence in checking thieving and unjust dealing among themselves,. for there is among the Maoris a firm belief in and dread of its power.



The following acpount of the method of employing "the curse," as given me by the Maoris :—The women are much vexed when any of the flax scraped by them is stolen. In such a case she would consult a tohunga, who would undertake to discover the thief. Her house wbuld be placed under tapu., during which time no one is allowed to enter it. This is necessary to render the makutu effective. Then the tohunga asks, "Has any one entered your house ?" On a reply in the negative, he tells the woman he will come to her at night, when he visits her and takes her to the Water-side, where he takes off his clothes, and proceeds to strike the water with a stick carried for the purpose. Immediately he does this the form of the thief is supposed to appear to the tohunga, whereupon he curses it, when the thief is supposed to fall ill, and perhaps die. The old Maoris had religions peculiar to each tribe and family in forms of karakia, or invocation addressed to their departed ancestral spirits.

It was about the year 1850 when Wi Kingi and his tribe abandoned Waikanae and went to Taranaki, the land of their ancestors. The journey was Made through Cook's Straits in large war canoes. It was an imposing sight to watch the entire tribe, numbering several hundreds, in the canoes about three miles outside the breakers. In the year 1860 the dispute arose between Wi Kingi and the Waitara chief Taira, a dispute which eventually involved the Colony and Her Majesty's Government in. a long and expensive war. Luckily for us the Natives' preparations for war were incomplete, which fact was responsible for the misfortunes which befell us during the war not being worse than they were. In the year 1842' ray father, having imported a rope-making plant from England, established rope-works at Petone. His supply of fibre was drawn from the Wellington Natives, and also from Kawhia. The fibre produced by the Kawhia Natives was of a silky appearance, and quite different from the local article. It used to be sent down in baskets, which were packed with neatly-made hanks. Wheat sacks being scarce, my father employed a considerable number of Scotch women to weave thread from the flax fibre by means of "spinning jennies." My _father presented the first sack made by this means to Governor Fitzroy. The venture ended in financial failure, however, as it was after­wards found that sacks could be imported from Sydney for is 6d each, whereas it cost my. father 2s 6d each to nomufacture his, and consequently the enterprise had to be abandoned at considerable loss, the plant having cost some £500. Experiments


were made by my father to ascertain if the flax rope would take tar, and the captain of the H.M.S. Calliope took a ton of the tarred rope with a view of testing it. On his return, however, he informed my father that the experiment was a failure as the fibre did not absorb the tar, which wore off with use. The gum in the fibre was the cause of the trouble. After carrying on the business of rope-making in Petone for four years my father established his plant at Waikawai where we spent four years. Then my father was attracted to the Manawatu district, and, leaving Waikawa, he, in the year 1848, established d rope-walk on the bank of the _Manawatu river near the Maire lake, Shannon, where Mr Charles Hartley was engaged in carrying on a large trade with the Maoris. I retain vivid and pleasant recollections of our canoe trip up the Manawatu river on the occasion when we took up our manufacturing plant to the new site. I was struck with the appearance of the rich alluvial flats which stretched back from both banks of the river. The banks were adorned with kowhai trees, the yellow blossom of which shone replendent in the bright sunshine. Then there were patches of bush skirting the river banks, composed of tall pines and thick undergrowth of many varying shades of green, among which bright-blossomed creepers reached aspiringly upwards till some reached the tops of the tallest trees, making a striking scene of natural beauty. Here and there in the bush the hell-birds and tuis sang their wild musical songs of joyous freedom, white cuckoos and many other Native birds abounded. In the clearings along the banks we saw Maori villages, and crops of wheat which promised a rich harvest to their dusky owners, who took great trouble with their cultivations. And so we made our way slowly up the river, while our Native canoemen shouted their wild songs while straining at their paddles, until at last we reached Mr Chas. Hartley's place. Here we found a fine Maori settlement composed of large pahs and hundreds of Natives engaged in the cultivation of the rich river flats, and the preparation of fibre from the flax which grew in. abundance in the vicinity. It was indeed a pretty place possessed of great natural beauty. Here I saw suspended between the branches of a giant rata tree four Maori coffins. .It was the Native burial ground, and in one place was a canoe set upright in the ground, and in it the corpse of a woman in a sitting posture dressed in beautiful mats and feathers. We established our rope-walk about three chains from this spot.

There were two powerful tribes living in the neighbourhood, one of which was named the Ngatiwakatere. The other tribes were heathens. So well ordered were the customs that months would pass without an angry word being spoken among them, indeed, the old Maori tongue was almost devoid of any expression


of a profane nature. The only curse it contained was considered to be so awful that it was only applied to a public enemy, or to those about to become such, and its employment was nearly always .followed by a declaration of war. I could not have wished to have lived among bettez people.

At the time of which I write, Messrs Thomas and John Kebbell were engaged at Pia,ka in carrying on a large trade with the Native-i. They had.---7-a stEam flour-m.14K also did a considerable trade la timber. Elunclo-le Natives rain Moutoa, used to visit them and-15ring canoes laden with whe and dressed

flax. The Kelobells also had a fine farm. Mr V. Cook was located on a nice farm on the opposite side of th iver, and he, too, carried on trade with the Natives. 'This was about 1851. Mr Cook also owned two forty-ton coasting lessels, which were built for him by Messrs G. Nye and F. Able, of Foxton. At that time Mr A. Burr had a splendid farm lower down the river at what is known as "The Long Reach." I considered it a model farm, and it was well stocked with cattle.

At that time (1851) Captain Robertson and Dr Best were farming at Foxton, where they both had large cattle runs, and Messrs H. and C. Simmons were then overseers for Mr Robinson, who also had a cattle run there. The Rev. James Duncan was in charge of the Foxton Presbyterian Church, and was well liked by the Natives in the Mqinawatu. The rev, gentleman, who arrived in the Colony in 1844, had been an eye-witness of many Native disturbances. It was abcut the year 1857 that a general exodus of the Ngalikahungunu from the Mana,watu to the Wairarapa occurred on account of the lands occupied by them Leing sold by the rightful Native owners. They were an industrious tribe numbering several hundreds, and the departure was a heavy loss to the traders of the district, for the flourishing Maori village at Moutoa became deserted, and their supplies of corn, potatoes, and flax were, of course, lost to the traders,


I will here relate an incident which nearly got me into serious trouble, and which illustrates one phase of Maori superstition. Happening to capture a large green 'lizard in the bush near Hartley's settlement at the Maire, I tied a string to one of its legs. and drove it along in front of fne, a la Paddy when taking his pig to market. Just as I reached the bank of the river with my prize I came upon two Maori women who were sunning themselves, as is their custom. They were sitting close to the track along which I was driving the lizard, and when I was close' upon them they saw the creature, and at once sprang the ground, and, uttering loud screams of horror, bolted homewards like a shot out of a gun. They both went out of their minds for several days. One of the women was so much affected by the shock that blood exuded from her ears and nose. Their husbands, together with a number of others, waited on my father within a few days of the occurrence and explained bow exceedingly serious had been my unwitting offence in the eyes of the tribe. They regarded the lizard as possessed by the spirit of an ancestor, and my capture of the animal was regarded by them as a taua muru (a robbery in revenge). So seriously did they regard any interference with a lizard that the offence was punished by death. However, my father succeeded in getting the chief to use his influence on my behalf, so, finally, the matter was settled amicably without muru (plunder). They all warned me never to interfere with a lizard again.

An -instance which I witnessed at this place comes to my mind, which will illustrate the barbaric character of the old Maoris. A chieftainess fell in love with one of her tribe, but he, not -being of high birth, was objected to by the girl's relations. After the courtship has been in progress for several months, the old chief determined to break off the engagement by giving her to one of the men engaged on our rope-walk. I was engaged as interpreter: so one morning I, the old chief, and the girl, waited on "Jim," as wefcalled him. I explained to him that the chief wished to know if he (Jim) wanted a wife, and if so would he take the dusky damsel then before him, who, by the way, appeared to treat the matter lightly, and laughed heartily while the bargain was being made. "Jim" said he had no objections, and then I explained to him. that before the bilrgain was completed the old chief wanted " utu," or payment in the form of a blanket. As soon. as the blanket was handed over to him, the chief said to the


maiden "You must be good to my pakeha, you must not leave him, and you must do his bidding." This she readily agreed to, and thus " Jim " got a Wife. Some five months after "Jim's" " marriage " I happened to be working fiear the bush, when. Eata, his wife, came out of the bush, having given birth to a child, which she carried in her arms. I asked her what she was carrying, and she, with a laugh, replied "I have a child," whereupon she went into the house and washed it.

Three days afterwards Tomarua, the girl's uncle, came to the house in a state Of excitement, and found Eata lying on her bed with the child. " Pretty work this," said the old chief wrathfully, " I am ashamed to let my pakeha keep a bastard." He then became more excited, and saying "I won't stand this," he leaped forward, and seized the child by its two hands. Eata screamed and wept, to which her uncle replied, "I warn you not to transgress." He then marched out of the house, carrying the child in one hand and flourishing his murderous tomahawk in the other. I quickly brought " Jim," my father, and other hands engaged on. the rope-walk, to Tomarua, who swore he would kill the did We begged and entreated him to spare it, and my father offered him payment if he would give it up. But Tonsarua's blood was up, and walking to a karaka tree threatened to dash out its brains. We endeavoured to prevent him from committing so horrible a crime, but he became still more excited, and, threatening us with his tomahawk, walked towards the river, and, in spite of all our entreaties and efforts to frustrate his purpse, he threw the child into the river, where it was drowned before our eyes.

Ton-mama's wife had a horror of music. The sound of a band playing or even the whistling of a tune would send her into convulsions. At such time she would present a horrible sight by the fearful contortions of her face, which would become covered with blood, which, on these occations, flowed from her eyes, ears, and nose. She allowed the blood to dry, and would never wash it off because she believed it to be caused by spirits.

Among the Maoris, as among all the races of men that have ever inhabited the earth, a woman was the most frequent cause of the trouble that arose among them. I have known an immodest glance to cause a duel and blood-shed. I will here relate an incident, of which I was an eye-witness, which will illustrate the trouble which arose because a woman had deserte,d her husband for another man_ Learning from a Native lad, with whom I was

on friendly terms, that there was to be ;;,i1Lb for one of the high chief's wives who was livin with anoth: Ha6ri, I n vAved to

accompany him and witness the proceedings. •Arriving at the pa I saw groups of young men fully armed, and indulging in a


war-dance for the purpose of working themselves up to fighting pitch. At the conclusion of the dance the party marched in the direction of the pa, where the faithless spouse was living. This was distant about four miles, and the route lay through the dense bush.' On arriving at an open plain a halt was called and the final preparations were made f9r the fray. All being in readiness the leader ordered the short distance, and then gave the detachment forward again for an order to charge. Immediately the party rushed forward at full speed uttering yells and screams, in the direction of the pa. When within a few paces of their antagonists the leader roared the command to halt, and immediately the taua sank to a kneeling position on one knee, while Ahitara, the leader, sprang into the air, brandished his spear, contorted his face, and only the whites of the eyes were visible. In a tone of defiance he shouted the first words of the war-cry, whereupon all his men sprang instantly from the ground, and to the accompaniment of horrible grimaces and protruding tongues, which added to the hideousness of their appearance, they joined their leader in the wild war-song, while they leaped and stamped so violently that I distinctly felt the ground tremble where I stood.

Then. Ahitara leaped forward, like an arrow shot from a bow, and confronting the Native for whom his wife had deserted him, he shouted, "You stole my wife, the point of the spear in your throat shall be the last thing you will ever taste," and then rushed at his enemy, who had assumed a kneeling posture. Ahitara raised his spear to strike, but the kneeling warrior never flinched, not even when the lunge brought the point of his antagonist's spear under his chin. Ahitara sprang backward several paces, and then calling upon his still kneeling enemy to look his last upon earth and sunshine, he again levelled his spear at his throat and rushed forward as though to transfix him on its point. Just as it appeared that the spear would do what had surely been threatened by its owner, the point was lowered with aTtonishing rapidity and dexterity, and instead of entering the throat the point was buried in the Native's right shoulder, in spite of his attempt to parry the blow with his own spear. The wound was followed by a minute stream of blood, and as blood had been drawn the strange duel was at an end.

Then a korero began. Ahitara and his wife asked for utu (payment) before he would return, and while the korero was proceeding it leaked out that the woman who was the cause of all !rile trouble had been hidden in the bush near at band. immediately _Ahitara's men rmhed in the direction of the. bush, where, after a short search, the woman was discovered to be hiding in a rata tree. On being discovered she screamed and

howled as a Maori woman can, and she was nearly torn limb from limb by the party, which succeeded in obtaining payment for the crime before it returned home.





I find I am drawing near the end of these reminiscences, which, after all, cover but a few of the most remarkable incidents which have come under licky observation during my long residence on this coast. I am an old man now, and looking back through the vista of the vanished years I see much to regret in the changes that time has wrought both in the character of the Maori and the appearance of the country. The beautiful forests have disappeared for ever before the bushman's axe, while fires have completed the work of devastation. What a change, for instance, has taken place in the appearance of the country in the vicinity of the Maire lake near Shannon since the days when my father settled there and established his rope-walk ! I always look back with feelings of the keenest pleasure to the time when we dwelt there on the banks of the Manawatu river, in. the midst of those simple-minded children of Nature, then all unspoiled by the

withering influences of our artificial civilisation. Our home was built in a beautiful spot near a dense bush composed of majestic ratas and pines, and a variety of lovely shrubs which formed a dense undergrowth, and among which grew graceful ferns, which rejoiced in the coolness, moisture, and shade of the sheltering trees. The bush was thronged with hirds—pigeons, kakas, tuis, bell-birds, fan-tails, wrens, robins, and wekas. I shall never forgot the forest choristers, how when the first faint rosy tint in the east proclaimed the advent of another day, a chorus of praise burst as with one accord from a thousand throats, their combined songs, warbling, chirpings, and screamings uniting in a joyous pean of untutored praise. Even at this distance of time I can in imagination hear the soft coo of the pigeon, the noisy screams of the garrulous kaka, the rescnant tones of the bell-birds, the inimitable gurgling song of the tui, the plaintive and diminutive melody of the wren—always in a minor key—the robin's cheerful song, and the chirpings and. " kissing" of the blythe fan-tails, and with it all there comes the strange, sweet, indescribable fragrance of the bush, and life seems pure and sweet again.

With the first rays of the sun the chorus ceased as 'suddenly as it begun, and general silence reign(d till sunset, when it all begun again and continued till dal.]: /1 etiS supervenod, when heads were tucked, beneath their tired wings till morning tia,wned again. Snaring pigeons was a favourite pastime of the Maoris in those days, and I well remember when the Otauru stream, which emptied into the :Haire lagoon, was a narrow stream of beautifully clear


water, which ran through a dense bush which extended to the mountain ranges, where it had its source. Here, in. the season when the miro berries were red ripe, the Maoris snared pigeons by hundreds. The following methods were employed in capturing them. These birds were accustomed to drink and bathe in the Otau. ru stream, but F.o dense was the growth of the forest overhead that it was possible for the Maoris, by carefully blocking numbers of the openings above the stream with boughs, to induce the birds to come down' to it through openings purposely left overhead. Perches innumerable were provided on which the birds, after bathing, would perch and preen their feathers. Surrounding the perches were numerous snares, consisting of loops of cabbage-tree leaves, this fibre being stronger than flax. As the unwary birds fluttered about, large numbers of them became entangled in the "snares of the fowler," where they remained dangling till morning at sunrise, this being the only time when the " tapu " allowed these spots to be visited.

I shall always remember the Maoris of my acquaintance in those by-gone days with the kindest of feeling, for I was often helped by them in many ways, and my frequent travels up and down the coast often made me the recipient of their kindly hospitality. By this means I was often enabled to gain a closer insight into their customs and manners than would have otherwise been possible, and I cannot help repeating that it has never been my lot to know a kinder or more hospitable people. Many a time have I dropped unexpectedly into their villages—an uninvited pakeha guest—and straightway they would proceed to provide me the very best cheer their means afforded. The choicest foods and the very best mats were always provided me by these simple-minded, untutored, yet withal, generous and noble-minded people. I do not desire to hide my strong affection for the Maori race as a whole, for I have been privileged to know them intimately in the pre-pakeha days, before they became contaminated and debased under the blighting influence of a bastard civilisation, when every instinct of their natures prompted them to acts of kindness and generosi5y towards those who treated them in a spirit of fairness. There was a grandeur, dignity, and nobility of character about the old chieftains which could only have been the result of long hereditary influences, and their influence extended to the whole tribe, which, in a measure, would reflect the character of its chief. Is it any wonder that I sigh when I compare the happy condition of the Native race in thw;0 vanicihed days with its generally mi4erable and deplorable state to-day ? Where, now, is their Native nobleness and independence of character ? Where their industries ? Where their once well-kept and prolific plantationsof potatoes, kumeras pumpkins, melons, wheat, and maize ? Where their once strong, healthy,


and sturdy men who numbered thousands, and in whose breasts there dwelt the burning love of adventure, poetry, and romance, as well as the fierce spirit of savage and mortal combat, and undying hatred of their foes ? Well may ye weep to-day over the mouldering bones of thy long-dead ancestors, and vainly do ye sigh dyer their cherished memories, for ye are a decadent race, and thy thousands have dwindled to hundreds, thy hundreds to scores, thy scores to tens ! The white mien's civilisation will, era long, have eagalped thee, an.9. all ttri,t, will rem tin will be a fast, but perishing, memory of a once-noble raze.



In the year 1850 my brother George and I carried 0/1 rope-making works on the banks of the INIana,watu river Otauru, near Poroutawhao. We leased land from Te Whatanui, of Ngatiraukawa, the man who saved the Xruaupoko people from utter extermination, and carried on an extensive trade with To Rangihaeata and his numerous tribes at Poroutawhao. We also bought flax and other pro-luca fram them. There was at that time a large pa near our house, and many Natives living with Te -Whatanui and Te Pakake, of Ngatiraukawa. Messrs H. and C. Symonds were then living at Ngatotara, leasing a large cattle run from the Ngatihuia, of Poroutawhao. At that time
there was a be tutiful forest at N gat Alm,

with Native pigeons, ka,kas, and other Native birds. The Natives in those days were adepts in the various arts of catching these. birds, spearing and trapping them for food, and in these pursuits they observed certain forms and ceremonies. Cunninglv-devised traps, and very long, barl-:erl-tipped spears were used in the foreit sports of these days, but these sports are to 1)2 se2n no more.. Tile kaikornako was a favourite tree among the Maoris in the "

old days," and a most important tree it was, being used for nbtaining fire by means of friction, before the advent of the pakeha with his flint and steel, and, later on, the phosphorous match.

T well remember a strange expedition, orgtnise.1 by the Ngatiwhakatere, of Manawatu, in 1852. Nativei receivod a copy of the Maori edition of the. ever-popular bool: " 11,1binson Crusoe," after reading which their imaginations were so fire:l that they felt convinced that an old wanderer was located on an island. situate in the head-waters of the Manawatu river, and had becm . there for some centuries. They proceeded to explore the island in question, but, needless to say, their quest was fruitless.

When I was among the Maoris in 1845 I noticed a large fre.3 fort used by the Aluaupoko tribe. This fort had seen so much active service before the invasion of the Ngatitoa awl

gatiraukawa tribes, and when To Ateawa, the country be,velm . Paekakariki and Manawatu, was wholly occupied bv the

One• 'of- the - tribe's settlemes was on the Mhakohoro clearii ig, by the ,Wailtl.Wa river; a shit irt distanc.?,

the present township of Mana,kau, Th Muaupoko were frequently harassed by the war -parties of the Ngatiapa and other tribes, and even by the Ngatikahungunus, of Wairara,pa, who -L reached this coast by the old war trail across the Tararua rauue-1.


As a means of defence, and to ensure the safety of the women and children, the Muaupoko, of Whakahoro, constructed a tree fort in the tops of three immense kahikatea (white pine) trees, situate on the northern side of the cleiii-Vr- Beams were laid from fork to fork of the trees, and upon these were laid a platform, on which the houses were erected. A fence encircled the whole stage, and

Liii stores of food, water, etc., were always kept in this elevated pa. Heaps of stones were also piled up on the platform, which were hurled down on the enemies when they approached the trees. On the advance of a war-party, the Muaupokos retreated to their fort, and pulled up their ladders after them, and as the platform was fully fifty feet from the ground, the besieged could well defy their enemies so long as their supplies of food and water held out, as the rifle was an unknown weapon in those days. When, however, Te Rauparaha arrived in the district, bringing firearms with him, the days of the tree-forts were numbered. The children of Kupe could at once see that their position was .untenable, and, sooner than be shot in their forts like birds, they fled. Stories in connection with old forts are still related by the old people of the Ngatiwebiwehi hapu of the Ngatiraukawa.

Most careful was the ancient Maori in preserving the history and sacred knowledge of his tribe, and woe betide the betrayer, or the one who made a wrong use of the knowledge he possessed. The life of those primitive people was, on the whole, a happy one. With the exception of the times when they were harassed by a superior tribe, they enjoyed life after their kind. Each season of the year, and portion of each day held its own special tly::k for the ancient Maori. The women performed the household duties, such ai cooking, keeping the houses in order, making sleeping mats, and others of finer texture used as garments. They also accompanied

b the men to the cultivations, where they cooked the first meal of the day, and also assisted in the labour of the field. The whole party returned to the kainga about three in the afternoon, when

i. preparations would be made for the second and concluding meal of the day. The men had many duties to perform—cultivating their food products, gathering the crops, building dwelling and store-houses, making canoes, fishing, hunting, making nets,

· cordage, carving and grinding by friction to form weapons and implements of stone. Food was plentiful in the land of the taro,

· and no famine visited the land so long as' peace prevailed. The long winter evenings were beguiled by the recounting of weird tales, and the chanting of numberlo8s poems. The rehearsal of hakas, and indulgence in many forms of games also helped to pass many a weary hour.



Let us old settlers remember the year 1840, and what our expectations were when we left our Native land ! How bright a prospect was open to our views ! how ardent our hopes and energy, and how vigorous ! Let us look at the realisation of our hopes, and the fruits of our expectations, and then say what is due to those whose interference and maladministraticn have dashed the promised cup from our lips. How different was our condition, how different our prospects during that short period previous to the interference of the British Government, when we first e;f-ablished ourselves on these shores, before our amicable relations with the Natives were disturbed, and our pecuniary resources drained into a distant treasury ! How easily traceable are all the subsequent evils which have accrued to us—to the mischievous and wicked misgovernment under which we have laboured. We were then a happy little republic, governed as far as government was requisite, by officers of our own appointment, or still more, by our own mutual good feeling towards each other, and not the undoubted influence on the prosperity of the Dominion by the serious land disputes between the New Zealand Company and the Natives, as well as with the European purchasers to whom the Company had sold land in. Lemadon on. the chance of obtaining possession in New Zealand, and the New Zealand Company, whose recklessness in land buying and selling were certainly largely to blame for the Wairau massacre. There was no evil intended by Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeata in the commencement of this trouble, for land was the foundation: of all our troublei with the Natives, and twenty-two of our country-men had beea murdered at Wairau. The rights of the Natives to their lands, and the Treaty of Waitangi, should have been respected by the New Zealand Company, for the treaty guarantees to the Maori chiefs and tribes of New Zealand, and to the respective families and individuals thereof, the full, exclusive, and undisputed possession of their lands and estates, forests, and fisheries. Now the Maori chiefs see that their possession is being taken away, and the details of the Treaty of Waitangi had only been. held out as false hopes to them, and is being broken without a just cause. It was when the tide turned the Maori war for Great Britain that the treaty was no more, and those times, whoTi the average man would rather die than tell a lie, have passed away.

On many occasions I have teen plied with quDstions about the character of the Maori. It is true that I have spent nearly my


whole life among them, and have had the utmost opportunity of lEarning very nearly all there is to be known about the character of these interesting people. No one can doubt the mental capacity of the Maori, and had it been possible to have educated them, and inculcate habits of sustained industry they might by this time have altogether cast aside their old habits and associations. It is true that the missionaries did effect good work, but the unfortunate dissensionp amongst ourselves have not only prevented the gradually awakening mind from receiving fixed ard decided principles, but have rendered it very nearly impossible to convert them to other channels of modern thought. Gratitude is unknown to the Maori; no word expressive of this feeling being found in their language. Theft is very rare amongst them, revenge being their strongest vice ; in. many instances feelings of revenge are kept alive for generations.. They are liberal in giving presents, but presents are merely modes of trade, as return gifts are always expected. They are, as a rule, gifted in oratory, possessing a great flow of words. They are indolent, strong against the weak, but weak against the strong. When. mastered, either physically or mentally, they became as manageable as children, but any power possessed over them must be exerted in a right way. They are more easily overcome by gentle and skilful management than by ill-directed force. The Maoris value life, but die with indifference when death is inevitable ; they have no benevolence, and are cruel to their old men and women. Long-absent friends are greeted with a profusion of tears, but, as with children, this grief is d3ititute of any intensity of feeling. _Maoris have the minds of children and the passions of men ; they respect ancient laws and customs, but arc ready to embrace new views and opinions given out by men in authority. So constituted are their 'minds that it is impossible to foresee how certain circumstances will affect them. Futurity is seldom looked into, although, like all mankind, they long for what is unknown, and regret what is lost. Fondness for novelty is a passion, but it is

almost impossible to excite wonder. Vanity, arrogance, and independence are uaiversal ; they are more vain. than proud. In all their actions th2y are alive to their own interests, in pursuit of which they are not, at the present day, overburdened with conscientiousness.



The position occupied by the great chief, Te Rauparaha, connection with the establishment and earlier progress of the New Zealand Company's settlement in Cook Strait would alone justify us in recording all that can still be learnt of the career of this remarkable man, but, when in addition to the interest which his personal history possesses for us in this respect, we find that he

I. took a very important part in the events that occurred in these islands between the years 1818 and 1840—leading us as they did to an immense destruction of life among the then-existing population, and to profound changes in the habits and character of the survivors—it becomes important fOr the purposes of the future historian of the Dominion, that we should preserve the most authentic accounts of his career, as well as of that of the other great chiefs who occupied, during the period in question, positions of power and influence amongst the leading New Zealand tribes. As with Hongi Te Waharoa, and Te Wherowhero in the North, so Te Rauparaha in the south carried on during the interval referred to, wars ,of the most ruthless and devastating character, undertaken partly for purposes of conquest, and partly for the gratification of that innate ferocity for which the New Zealanders have long been remarkable.

It appears that in 1817, or about three years before E Hongi left for England, and after the failure of Te Rauparaha's attempt to form an alliance against Waikato, a large war party arrived at Kawhia under the command of Tamati Waka Nene and his brother Pat uone, who invited Te Rauparaha to join them in a raid upon

\ the southern tribes. Tamati Walia's people had a considerable number of musketg on this occasion, but the expedition had no \ special object beyond slaughter and slave-makina with the added !pleasure of devouring the bodies of the slain. Te Rauparaha, joined them with many warriors, and the ,party travelled along the coast, through the territory of the Ngatiawa, whose alliance with Ngatitoa, however, saved them from molestation. Hostilities were commenced by an attack upon Ngatiruanui, who were dispersed, after great slaughter. This first success was followed by attacks on all the tribes on the coast until the taua reached Otaki, great numbers of people being killed and many slaves taken, while the remainder were driven into the 1ii1l4 and fastnesDes, whore many of them perished mis,u-ably from ex posure and want, At Otaki the invaders rested, Ruaparaha visiting Kapiti, which he found in possession of a section of the Ngatiapa, tribe, under the chiefs Patau and Kotuku. It would seem that


even at this time Te Rauparaha, who was much struck with the appearance of the country, formed a design of taking possession of it, and, with his usual policy, determined, instead of destroying the people he found on the island, to treat them with kindness, though he and the other leaders compelled them to collect and surrender much greenstone, of which this tribe especially had, .during a long intercourse with the Middle fsland, and by means of their own conquests of the Ngaitahu, obtained large and valuable quantities. The hostile party then continued their course along the coast. destroying great numbers of people. On their arrival at Wellington, then called Whanganui-a-taru, they found that the inhabitants—a section of till Ngatikahungunu—alarmed at the '­approach of the invaders, had fled to the Wairarapa. Thither followed the taua, and discovered the Ngatikahungunu in great force at pah called Tawhere _ kau. In order to gorge themselves upon the bodies -61ice slain, the party returned to Wellington and proceeded to Omere, where they saw a European vessel lying off Raukawa, in Cook Strait. Tamati Waka Nene, on perceiving the ship, immediately shouted out to Te Ruaparaha, " Oh, Raba, do you see that people sailing on the sea ; they are a very good people, and if you conquer this land and hold intercourse with them you will obtain guns and powder, and become very great." Te sRauparaha apparently wanted but this extra incentive to induce him to take permanent possession of the country between Wellington and Patea, and at once determined to remove thither with his tribe, as soon as he could make arrangements. The taua (war party) returned along the coast line as they had first come, killing or making prisoners of such of the inhabitants as they could find as far as Patea,. It was during the return of this war party that Rangiha,eata, took prisoner a woman named Pikinga, the sister of Arapata Hiria, a Ngatiapa chief of high rank, whom he afterwards made his slave wife. Laden with spoil, and accompanied by numerous slaves, the successful warriors reached Kawhia, where Tamati Waka Nene and Patuone, with their party, left Te Rauparaha in order to return to their own country at Hokianga, and after all danger of further attack on the part of Waiata, had ceased. Te Rauparaha determined, before resuming the movement southward, to again visit his friends at Maunaatantiari, in order to induce the latter, if possible, to join him in the expedition. For this purpose he travelled to Taupo, taking the road from_ Taranaki by the upper Wanganui and Tuhua. At Tuhua he had a long conference with Te Heuheu, who promised to afford him any assistance he could in affecting his settlement at Kapiti and on the main land, but would not consent to take any other part in the undertaking. He then proceeded to Opepe, on Lake Taupo, where a large fiumber

x n1 .1.611+ 1.3 ka A:J.2( 1../ A:J.7 U.O La/ 10 1

of the Ngatiraukawa had assembled, under Whatanui, in order rto disCuss Te Rauparaha's proposals. Here a great tangi was heid, at which Whatanui made a speech to Te Raiuparaha, and gave hina many presents as they had not met for some time. After the ordinary ceremonies were concluded, Te Rauparaha again openbd his proposals to the assembled chiefs, representing the many advantages that would accrue from adopting them, andiparticulails

insisting on the opportunity it would give the tribe of obtaining abundant supplies of fire-arms, as Kapiti and other parts of Cook Strait had already begun. to be visited by European ships. He also dwelt on the rich and productive character of the land, and the ease with which it might be conquered, whilst there wa's nothing to prevent a large number of the tribe from remaining it Maungatautari in order to retain their ancient possessions them To all this, however, Whatanui gave no reply, and the meeting' broke up without any indication that any part of the tribe would join in the proposed expedition. Te Rauparaha then visited other sections of the tribe, and another great meeting took place, at which he was not present. At this meeting the chief objection, raised was that by joining Te Rauparaha he would become theiri chief, and there was an unwillingness on the part of the tribe,! notwithstanding what had occurred at the death of Hape, entirelv to throw off their allegiance to their own hereditary arikis.

reFolution was communicated to Te Ra,uparaha by Horohou, one of the sons of Hape, by Akau, then Rauparaba's wife, and the. reasons specially assigned for it grieved To Rauparaha very much. Pomare then gave over to Rauparaha a number of men who had been under the leadership of Tuhourangi, who, from that time, became attached to, and incorporated with, _N gatitoa, and accompanied him on his return to Taranaki shcrtly after. On reaching Taranaki he made preparation for continuing the migration, and succeeded in inducing Wikingi Rano-°itake, since celebrated in connection with the Waitara war, and his father, with many other chiefs, and a considerable number of the Ngatiawa, tribe, to accompany him. His followers then consisted of his own people, the Ngatitoa, numbering 200 fighting men ; the Ngapuhis, who had been transferred to him by Pomare, and Wikingi's Ngatiawa, numbering 400 fighting men, and their several families. During the interval between the commencement of the migration and its resumption from Taranaki, after Te Rauparaha's last return thither, a large war party of Waikatos, under Tukorehu, Te Kepa, Te Rawau (Apihoriy and other chiefs, had descended the East Coast, from whence th_cy invaded the territory which Te Ra,uparaha was about to seize. he Muaupoko, Rangitaue, and Ngatiap:t were an attacked -bn this occasion, and • again suffered great loss,'a circumstance which became known to


Te Rauparaha through some Ngatiraukawa' men who, had joined the Waikatos in their expedition, and had communicated its results to him during his last visit to Maungatautari. It appears, moreover, that after he had left Taupo, Whatanui and a large party of Ngatiraukawa, made up their minds to join him at Kapiti) but instead of following the same route, which he intended to take, they determined to proceed via Ahuriri, having been invited thither by the Ngatikahungunu. On their arrival there, however, a dispute took place between the two parties, and a battle ensued, in which the Ngatiraukawa were defeated with considerable slaughter, the remainder of the party being forced to retreat upon Maungatautari. Amongst the leading chiefs who accompanied Rauparaha was Rangihaeata, who, during the previous invasion, If had taken prisoner a Ngatiapa woman of rank, named Pikinga, I whom he had made his slave-wife. When her brothers heard 'of the arrival of Ngatitoa at Wanganui, they, with a party numbering altogether twenty men, come to meet her, and accompanied Ngatitoa as far as the Rangitikei river. Shortly after Rauparaha, had settled at Ohau, two of the chiefs of Muaupoko visited him, and offered, if he would come over to their pa at Papaitonga, to make him a present of several large canoes. He was extremely delighted at this offer, and at once consented to go. Rangihaeata, howeer, endeavoured to dissaude him, saying, " Raha, I have had a presentiment that you will be murdered by Muaupoko." But Ruaparaha laughed at his fears, and, attracted by the prospects of obtaining the canoes, which had been glowingly described to . him by the two cbiefs, would not listen, to any suggestions against the proposed visit. He even refused to take any large force with him,

'1$ confining himself to a few men, and to some of his own children. It appears, however, that a plot had been laid between Turoa and

.el Paetahi, chiefs of the Wanganui tribes, and the leading chiefs of Muaupoko, to murder Te Rauparaha, and the invitation to Papaitonga, with the offer of canoes, was only a step in the plot for that purpose. It is quite clear that he apprehended no danger, and that he fell into the trap laid for him with wonderful facility. It was evening when he and his companions arrived at the pa ; they were received by Toheriri, at whose house Ruaparaha was to sleep. His people were all accommodated in different parts of the pa, Ruaparaha alone remaining with Toheriri. The murder was to be committed at night by a war party from Horowhenua, and when Toberiri believed that his guest was fast asleep, he rose

5 and went out, intending to inform the war party that Rauparaha,

o was asleep in his house. His movements, however, aroused Te

t), Rauparaha, who at once suspected some foul design, a suspicion which was soon converted into certainty by the cries of some of his

o, people at the commencement of the bloody work. He there escaped


from the house, and, being entirely unarmed, fled towards Ohau which he succeeded in reaching, but quite naked. This treacherousl murder provoked the wrath of Ngatitoa, who, from that time4 proceeded to destroy Muaupoko without mercy. Toheriri wast taken prisoner, sand afterwards hung and eaten, undergoing dreadful tortures. Before this event Muaupoko were a somewhat powerful tribe, but their power was utterly broken by the t Ngatitoa and their allies, in revenge for the attempted murder of their great chief. After this escape Te Rauparaha settled at Ohau, and occupied the main land as far as Otaki, his war parties I constantly hunting the people at Rangitikei, Manawatu, and Horowhenua.

Having completed a career of conquest, Te Rauparaha, like the Roman of old, sought other lands to subdue, so, maiming the t greit war canoes he had wrested from the fatten, he crossed over to the South Island and ravaged and laid waste whole territories in the Nelson and Marlboiough districts. This being only a brief sketch, details of the many bloody wars and massacres in which Te Rauparaha was directly concerned are omitted. Within a e comparatively brief period of his arrival in the Scuth Island he became immersed in larger schemes of conquest, taking upon 7.i himself almost superhuman tasks. The Ngatitohu tribe relieved i; the strain he had put upon the Rangitane, and just at that time a multiplicity of enemies furnished him with a surfeit of perilous experiences. But Rauparaha was no less a diplomat than a warrior. By diplomacy he accomplished that which he failed to 1_ attain by fighting. War broke out between. the fiery Ngatiawa, and _Ngatiraukawa, two tribes friendly towards him. This t engrossed very nearly the whole of his attention, leaving him with t little to devote to reprisals on his old enemies, and before a suitable f opportunity had arrived for avenging the killing of his people by the Awe Awe, Christianity had gained a footing among a number of tribes on the West Coast, due to the preaching and teaching of a Native clergyman from Taura,nga, Wiremp. Hamua by name. Tired of the turmoil of war and satiated with bloody butchery, the Maoris gladly embraced this new doctrine of peace and goodwill towards men. The strenuousness of those times was more than even an old Maori warrior could enduie, trained as he was in the ways of war almost from his infancy. Conditions were ripe for the preaching of the doctrine of universal love, and they seized upon

_as though it were the panacea for their thousand woes. Strange - _to reiite,T,amihana_Rauparaha, the son. of Te Rauparaha, was one of the first and most enthusiastic converts to .,Christianity. HeE!

born at the pa of 1)..uohu, while the Ngatitoas were on their memorable migration south from Kawhia in search of knowledge.). and bloodshed. I knew Tamihana to be a man of considerable.


• —


intelligence, thoroughly imbued with pakeha ideas. His dress was always that of a European, and his house, which was open and free to all, was a comfortable, convenient, and desirable place to live in. Tamihana was greatly distressed at the havoc and desolation the incessant battles and massacres weie creating. His great influence was constantly exerred in uplifting the banner of peace. But so keenly did he recognise the need of one more qualified than himself to expound the teachings of Christ, that he journeyed all the way from this district to the Bay of Islands to secure the services of a resident missionary. It was there he met the Rev. Octavius Hadfield, whom he induced to return with him, and from December of that year, 1839, a new era may be said to h4vw dawned for both Maori and pakeha on this wild West Coast. T6 Rev. Mr Hadfield was in those days a man of high character and keen intelligence. He was loved and respected by the Natives amongst whom he lived in the pa at Waikanae. He was in close touch with both Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeata, and knew their every movement of any consequence. During the troublous times with those two chiefs the Rev. Hadfield spent nearly his whole time and energy travelling up and down the coast to allay irritation and prevent unfriendly relations between Natives and Europeans. It was in 1861, during the bellicose attitude of the Kingite Natives, that the RBV. Hadfield rendered services of incalculable value to this country. The Native 3 at °tali had raised the Kingite flag, drilling, and other war-like preparations, were in progress, plans for driving the pakeha into the sea were evolved, and the whole country side was in a ferment. It was at this time that the Rev. Hadfield held counter meetings, and strongly opposed bloodshed becoming rampant in this locality. Luckily, his efforts were successful, and but for him there would have been another story to tell.. No one could estimate the good work. done in saving the unprotected settlers at such a time, and I cannot refrain from bearing testimony to the great services he rendered to humanity and to the cause of Christ. Not one word, either from savage or pakeha, did we bear in those days against him. His was a devoted life to the cause of religion and the reclamation of the savage, and most zealously .did he pursue his benevolent and beneficient calling. Not one inconsistent act was knewn of him, no one can impeach the pure and noble purpose that induced him to cast himself among a .body of the wildest savages in\this country.

-Ultimately, after a long period of quarrelling and warfare, the great Te Rauparaha was captured by the clever strategy of Sir George Grey. He was seized in a tent on a favourable opportunity, and carried away unknown to his followers, and retained until his power • had diminished sufficiently to permit of his


release. I witnessed his return from captivity to Otaki. in 1846 ;-

it was an occasion never to be forgotten. A British man-of-war ii re

hove in sight and anchored off the mouth of the Otaki river, boats ex

- were lowered therefrom, officers, soldiers, and marines, in gorgeous se:
uniforms, filled them, and as they neared the shore Te Rauparaha . - stood proudly amongst them, attired in an admiral's uniform and

--c4r-ryinga sword. He was2 Cecompame'--by-'"GtOie r -:--Grey and k/

•- ••- the commander of the warship. Maoris lined the shores and gave 1 their chief a right royal welcome home. The very earth trembled 1 with the stamping of thousands of dusky warriors' feet. Te


auparaha never relapsed into his savage war-like usages of earlier

times ; on the contrary, he urged the .Ngatiraukaw-as to build the le

Otaki church, to be named Rangiatea.,_a_a_48_he and the chiefs t IC


of the Ngatitoas and Ngatiraukawas gave. 57fLacres of land at

•Otaki towards the education of Ngatitha, Ngatiawa, and


Ngatiraukawa children. A college and school was. established

under the auspices of the Rev. Mr Hadfield and the Rev. Mr Williams, and it was carried on most satisfactorily for many years.
Archdeacon Williams was universally beloved by the Natives, ; t
being possessed of that extreme, sympathetic feeling which distinguished the best class of English clergymen in those days. To Rauparalla ended his days in Otaki, passing away in 1849. A monument there bears record of the event.

On the 23rd July, 1846, Te Rauparaha was taken prisoner by
_Governor Grey, who sent at night an armed party of 150 men at f;
Porirua,. Rauparaha and others were surprised in their sleep, and 7eized, it is said, without sufficient pretext, and placed on board

the man-of-war Calliope for twelve months. About the time of the

capture of Te Rauparaha, 200 men of the tribe of Ngatiraukawa,

who befriended Rangihaeata, assembled at Otaki, and he,

Rangihaeata, told them he wished to destroy Wellington and kill

the Europeans as sdtisfaption for the captivity of Rauparaha ; but

.,Matene te Whiwlii and Tamihana Te Rauparaha son of Te

Rauparaha, told them they must put an end to this foolish desire,

and not to hearken to the tikanga, the ways of Rangihaeata, but

that they must try and live in peace; and cease their bad desire.

They consented, and When Rauparaha was liberated, about June,

1847, Te Rauparaha urged the Ngatiraukawa to build a large

church in Hadfield town a.8 Otaki was then called, as he had a great

desire to worship the great God. He was continually worshipping

until he died at Otaki on the 27th November, 1849, in his 81st

year. The great chieftain was buried in the Native Mission

cemetery at Otak-i on the 3rd _December, but the Maoris now

resident in that town declare that the coffin containing his remains

was subsequently removed to Kapiti Island.

• Rangihaeata, on hearing of the seizuie of his chief; dashed to


the neighbourhood to aid him, if possible, but the northern chiefs refused to obey his call. They told him that to attempt to exterminate the Europeans was foolish; how could they 'dry up the sea ? Therefore, he said; finish fighting with the Europeans

Rangihaeata lived to be 70 years- of age. He died in November, 1856, and was buried at Porou.tawhaoear Foxton.. I knew Tamihana Te Rauparaha and his father, Te Rauparalia, since T8'45. Tf1 Te Rauparaha died, when there was any great question to settle, the old chiefs ,would meet Tainihana and Matene Te Whiwhi at their houses to get advice from them about thd busifieSi-thit was to come off. Tamihana and Matene were the leading chiefs of their tribe and ll the white settlers along this f coast must thank them for their lives, for it was they who advised

11-1 rte-Gr-ey how to end the war with Te Rang,ihaeata in 1846, thus saving the white pecple from being massacred by Te Rangihaeata. Tamihana and Matene had a most eventful life,

I worthy of record by all the white people. They had great

A.: influence among their tribes, and their deaths were a great loss to

. all. Tamihana died at his house on the sheep run, and the v;

Ngatiraukawa went there and carried him to Matene Te Whiwhi's

ous ki, ,i_There were hundreds of Natives around him at the tangi, and fbr a week there was great mourning. Memories of the past scenes come back upon me now as I write these lines. Tamihana Te Rauparaha got a marble bust from Sydney for his father, Te Rauparaha, but he died before it was erected by his tribe, the Illgatiraukawas. I have seen Te Rauparaha going to Phureb_many times -.-- He had a great desire to worship the only true God, and he was continually 'worshipping until he died.



The Wairau Valley comprises an extent of about 100,0004 acres of level land, 500 or 600 of which were in 1843 covered with . wood, and the remainder with fern and grass. There were then no traces of cultivation in any part of the valley or plains, the t; original inhabitants and possessors being the Rangitane, who were nearly extirpated about 1832 by the notorious chief Rluparaha. The few who escaped him took rafuge in the bush. These lands *ere acquired by purchase by the New Zealand Company from the I Maori chiefs, the respected owners. Some of the chiefs objected 4 to the sale, Warepori, by name Puakawa, being the leader of the opposition, but Matancri, the oldest, and formerly the most influential of these chiefs, acquiesced and the purchase was supposed

to have been effected. These lands were advertised for survey by , contract, by Captain Wakefield, the New Zealand Company's agent at Nelson, in March, 1843. Barnicat, Parkinson, and Cotterell, with their men, forming in all a party of about-, forty, startad by set from Nelson on the 15th April, and landed on. the Wairau beach on Tuesday, the 25th. There they found a chief named Epuka, with two oror three of his followers, who expressed no dissatisfaction at • their arrival. There were till then no other Natives in the valley, but in the course of two or three days a considerable number arrived from different parts of the strait, who manifested their intention of opposing the survey in various ways. They pulled up the surveyors' ranging-rods, destroyed a saw-pit, •and on. one occasion seven of them, armed with muskets, passed through the station, and talked threateningly to the men left in charge. They . abstained from personal violence, and towards the white men themselves appeared to entertain no unfriendly feelings, they had all along talked of Rauparaha,'s approaching visit, who, they said, would send the white men away. Their interrapions to the survey were complained of to Captain Wakefield.

Meanwhile, Te Bauparaha and Rangihaelta, being at Porirua, in attendance on the court of land claims, made known their determination to prevent the survey from proceeding, and Mr Joseph _Toms (better known as Geordie Bolts) repeatedly stated he understood from them that they would make a stand at Wairau, and lose their lives rather am), allow the white men to take possession of that place. Mr Spain, land commissioner, used his influence to pacify them, agreed to meet them at Port Underwood to investigate the land claims, as soon as passible after the adjournment


of his court at the end of June, and obtained from them a promise not to enter the Wairau within the time appointed, • nor do anything before his arrival. Mr Toms offered to take Rauparaha and Rangihaeata in his schooner to his own place in Cloudy Bay, and keep them until he received a communication from Mr Spain. On the 28th May Mr Toms received Rauparaha and party on board •his schooner Three Brothers, of which he was captain and owner, at Porirua, and, bavingicrossed to Mana Island, where he took in Rangihaeata and about ten more Natives, making about twenty-five in all, he proceeded to Cloudy Bay. It was understood on board that the Natives were going to fight for their land at Wairau. They were armed with muskets and tomahawks, Toms himseligiying them two muskets in exchange for a slave. The party were landed at Port Underwood in Cloudy Bay on June 1st. They then started with other Natives in eight canoes and a whale-boat for the Wairau, where they arrived on the same day. They appear to have been a hundred in numter, and their first visit was paid to a Mr Cave at Port Underwood. The following account of their behaviour was taken from. Mr Cave and communicated to the editor of the New Zealand Gazette, Wellington, by John Dorset, Esq., M.D., who accompanied the magistrates after the massacre. From the information I gathered from the whalers and the depositions taken at Cloudy Bay, it appeared to me that the Natives came fully prepared for mischief. The person on whose testimony I placed most reliance was Mr Cave, who had been resident there for the last seven or eight years, and who had been always up to that time on the most friendly terms with the chief Rauparalla and Ran gihaeata, but this time he noticed a peculiar ferocity about their bearing. They asked for things in. a way that brooded no denial, anfd seeing Mr Cave's men together they sent them off by their own boats, with .the exception of Mr Barnicoat and one man, who Rauparaha allowed to remain in charge of some provisions they had not room. for. The whole body of Natives then ascended the river in their canoes. In number they at this time amounted to 98, but subsequent arrivals swelled this number to 125, of whom about 40 were women and children.

The Police Magistrate at Nelson, having issued his warrant, and being informed of the number of the Natives, and of their being armed, resolved to attend to the execution of the warrant himself. Accompanied by an armed force, he expressed the opinion that such a demonstration -would prevent blood-shed; and. impress upon the Natives a sense of the authority of the law. It is certain that actual resistance was not anticipated, and that the moral effect of the presence of the force- was wholly relied on. The


men chosen were Of the labouring class, and intended as reinforcement to those employed in surveying. Many of them had never handled a fire-lock in their lives. The Government bri was then: in Nelson harbour, and, at the request of Mr Thompson Captain Richards consented to carry the party to the Wairau. I then consisted of the following persons :—Henry August Thompson, Esq., Judge of the County Court and Police Magistratd;, )(Captain Arthur Wakefield, RN., New Zealand Company's age* for the Nelson settlement ; and Captain Richard England, both

Justices of the Peace ; George Bycroft Richardson, Esq., Crowr. Prosecutor for Nelson; Mr James Howard, a warrant officer in thit Navy and the New Zealand's Company's storekeeper; Mr Cotterele* surveyor, four constables, and twelve special constables. Joh.,..e. Brooks went as interpreter, having often been similarly employe*: The brig sailed on Tuesday, June 13th, in the Gulf. On the sam: day she met the Company's boat on her return from the Wairau. With Mr Tuckett, Mr Patchett, a merchant and lan agent, and Mr Bettoirs, surveycr, these gentlemen, at the requeg of Captain Wakefield, joined his party with the boat's crew. 0

the evening of Thursday, June 15th, and the following mornincrk the party landed at Wairau, where Mr Barnicoat and his me°4, joined them. Muskets, and a cartouch bore of ball cartridggi' with each, were served out to the men, and cutlassei to as army 4,4, chose to avail themselves of them. On Friday afternoon thef4 ascended the right bank of the river about five milcs. On the waP they met Puaka, who was accompanied by a small party

Natives. They had been engaged in clearing land, but had been..". stopped, they said, by Te Rauparaba, who had gone higher up tlAt river. They appeared alarmed at the sight of the armed forcet but their fears were allayed by Mr Thompson informing Puak4; that the object of his journey had no reference to him or his partyit but that he had a warrant againd Te Rauparaha and Rangihaeat„ on a charge of arson. Mr Thompson also explained to him that, no force would be used toward them, but that they would bk required to go with him on board the brig, where the case

be investigated investigated by himself and the other magistrates. Puak replied that the other chiefs would not believe but what be cams.t1 to make war -upon them, but agreed to carry them. a message to•' the above effect. He then went off in his whale-boat higher up Another party of Natives were met with, and a similar explanatio given. It being now too late to proceed, the magistrates an, their followers encamped for the night at a pine-wood called Tu*, Maaine, and sot a watch. Their movemeatx, it alvears, had heel?. all along watched and reported by scouts, and Mr. Cave informs Dr.•Dorsed that one of the spiesthey left behind at the. pah wen. up -vith the English party, counted every man, and, a short tun


before the fight, crossed over the brook to his own party, gave the required information, and joined in the fight. •

On the morning of Saturday, 'June 17th, two boats having been brought up, the Europeans embarked in them and. went up the river a few miles. They. now amounted to 49, 33 of whom were armed with muskets, one or two carrying fowling-pieces. Mr -iowi41ia a cutlass ; the remainder were apparently unarmed, but in general were furnished with pocket-pistols. When mustered, before setting out, Captain Wakefield, having called order, said to them, "Men, whatever you do, do not fire unless you get orders." Having ascended the river about four miles the party perceived some smoke issuing from a wood, and soon heard the voice of Natives, that of Rangihaeata, being plainly distinguishable. On advancing they found them posted in the wood, which is about 59 acres in extent, on the right bank of a deep, unfordable rivulet called Tua Marina., which flows into the Wairau on its left bank, and is, at this place, about 30ft wide. They were squatting in groups in front of the dense wood, on about a quarter of an acre of cleared ground, with their canoes drawn

up on the bank of the stream. The white men halted on the left bank, with a hill, covered with fern, and manuka, behind them, and sloping upwards with several brows or terraces. All bore arms, and were forbidflen to cross the stream, or even show themselves until ordered. All accounts agree in estimating the number of Natives at about 120 to 125, including women and children. The men amounted to about 80 or 90, about half of whom were armed with muskets, the rest with Native weapons. At • the request of the magistrates a canoe was placed across the stream to serve as a bridge, bv a Native called Piccamarro (Big Fellow). Mr Thompson, Captain Wakefield, Messrs Tuckett, Cotterell, Patchett, Brooks, the interpreter, and Maling, the chief constable, crossed over. The Police Magistrate then called on To --11,aupar'aIa and Rangihaeata. The former alone came forward, arid Mr . Thompson explained that he was the Que,tn's representative, and that he had warrants against him and Rang.ihaeta for the destruction of the property of Mr Cotterell, and that he must go on the brig with such of his followers as he chose, where the matter would be investigated. Ruaparaha said that Mr Spain would enquire into and settle the business in a little while. Mr Thompson explained that Mr Spain's business lay in dsciding as to land claims, that it was a question of destruction of property, and had nothing to do with the ownership of the Wairau. Ruaparaha requested to have the matter decided on the spot, and professed his readinesa to make the compensation to Mr Cotterell, awarded by the Magistrates, provided their decision pleased him. Mr nompson replied that the case must


stepped forward with a Bible in his, band, and prayed that there ,

· might be no strife. At last Mr Thompson cried out, " Captain 1,
1 England, let the men advance." The conference with the chiefs lasted about twenty minutes or half-an-hour. Great trouble was ,*-t:.

AI taken to explain to them the non-connection of these proceedings

0 with the land claims, and every assurance was given them of a fair I

· bearing of whatever they might have to say in. defence. It was, •
! besides, explained to them that they were not now to be taken to

punishment, but to trial, because Mr Cotterell had complained •

against them, and that the complaint must be enquired into. Mr ',A,
i Thompson addressed them through the interpreter .Bi.00ks, and a

r , Bay of Islands' Native, who was present, explained to them every

— --word that was said. In the meantime the men left on the other -, •0 . side of the stream had been divided into two bodies, consisting of

sixteen and seventeen respectively, one under the command of '.....',•
0 . Captain England, the other under Mr Howard. -When tlie dispute

was at its highest Captain England, perceiving the danger of being

separated from the men should a collision arise, proceeded to the


creek with the intention of bringing them over in a canoe, which,

- -- with the consent of the Natives, was laid across it, Mr Thompson,

it seems, just then called to Mr Howard for his men, with some ‘- IIallusion, to the number of Natives. "I don't care if there are five •1

- thousand of them," was that gallant fellow's reply as he led his A party to the stream. In the canoe they met Captain Wakefield, Pwhom the rest of the gentlemen were apparently following. "Keep •-t..

your eyes eyes on them; my men ; they have their guns pointed at us,"

· said Captain Wakefield to the advancing men. At this moment, -

observing some movement among the Natives to Mr Thompson or

the gentlerno-n, lje exclaimed in a loud voice,. a;ild with great A.:

energy, " Men,iorwardh.- :Englishmen, forward !"--- ,,and, accordingff

. 7 to the explicit and ponsistent evidence of Joseph Morgan, a shot: il was fired by one of the Natives, which lay his comrade Tyrell dead-

, . • .,



at his feet. These two men, with Northam, also killed at almost the same time and spot, were in advance of their party, and on the ,opposite bank of the stream, when this occurred. Mr Thompson gave orders to fire. Before he could be obeyed the Natives had fired a volley, which was instantly returned. The gentlemen were crossing the stream while this 'went on, Captain England, the last of them, wading through the water into which he had fallen. the firing was kept up briskly on both sides for a few minutes, but the Natives had greatly the advantage—the bushes on their side being much closer. This, and their previous confusion from meeting in the canoe, may account for the greater loss of life among the Englishmen. Immediately after crossing Mr Patchett reeeived a shot in the left side. He leapt up, then fell, mortally wounded on the spot where he had been standing. Mr Richardson went to his assistance, and bent over him. to receive his last commands. He said, "I am mortally wounded, you can do me no good ; make your escape." Northam and Smith fell at this time near the same place. Captain. Wakefield, observing his men already retreating, and themselves exposed, ordered them to the hill to form. At this moment, it was ascertained that the Natives were on the point ef taking to flight, when Te Rauparaha, seeing his retreat —for there is no doubt he retreated immediately—excited his men, whc, raising a war-cry, darted across the stream in pursuit of the Europeans. These latter retreated, without order, in the direction of the hill. Mr Thompson, Captain Wakefield, Captain England, and Mr Howard urged them, for God's sake, to keep together, but in vain. On the first brow most strenuous efforts were made by the gentlemen to induce the men to stand and form. Mr Howard called to them to fix their bayonets and come to the charge. They, however, kept retreating up the hill, firing as they went. Captain Wakefield, in order to prevent a further sacrifice of life, ordered the Ming to cease. On the second brow of the hill Captain Wakefield said their only chance of life was to throw away their arms and lie down. He, Mr Thompson, and Brooks then again shouted kati (peace) and waved a white handkerchief. The Natives now ceased firing, and as they came up the white men delivered up their arms at Captain Wakefield's orders. The whole party seem to have gone a little further down the hill, where most of the Natives, with Rauparaha and Rangihaeata, immediately joined them. The Natives, having shaken hands with the prisoners, who were standing in a group, loaded their guns, and seated themselves in a half-circle before them. The Natives brandished their tomahawks over the heads of the defenceless men. Mr Thompson, observing this, said to RauparaIka "Kati," (don't), wh.ieh he repeated, and gold was offered as a ransom. While standing quietly in a (Troup they were joinell by


Ranaihaeata, who, having killed the wounded on his w' demanded the lives of those who had surrendered. To t Rauparaha at first objected, but on Ringihaeata calling on

not to forget his daughter (one of Rangihaeata's wives who .11 been killed before by a chance shot) he offered no furtil opposition. Standing in the midst of the Maoris the white nalik were easily separated. While in. this defenceless conditio without even a thought of treachery, Rangihaeata silently round, getting behind each, and with his tomahawk brained the' all. Mr Ironside, the Wesleyan missionary stationed at Cloud Bay, had preceded them with two boats' companies of whale' and discovered seventeen of the dead bodies. Captain Wakefiel coat and waistcoat had been stripped off in savage derision. T murderers had placEd a piece of bread near, and a pistol was 1 across the throat. The Natives and Europeans both agreed th the origin of the quarrel, in which twenty lives had been. lost, w-`' about the" land, and that Rauparaba and Rangihaeata h proposed that Mr Spain and Mr Clark should settle the catA concerning the land, after which they tore up the flags, thre down the poles which had been set up for marks, burnt. thil surveyor's house, and sent him and his men off the land. This le the surveyor to the residence of the Europeans—to the polie0 magistrate, ilforming him that the Natives had not kept their word in. leaving the matter to the commissioner, at which Police Magistrate and the constables went to take Rauparaha Rangihaeata. The two latter did not yield to the surnmons—theSt" would not go. Then the Police Magistrate called the armed me#, to come forward and arrest them. Just at. this time a gun w0,$: fired from the Europeans, and a conflict ensued in. which several fell on both sides, and the struggle began. On 12th Februaryi; 1844, Governor Fitzroy called at Waikanae. He landed ther::' from the H.M.S. _North Star. His Excellency and suite we received by the Rev. Octavius Hadfield, where the meeting wL. 'held concerning the Wairau massacre. A large body of Nativer::: some five hundred, gathered, arid were addressed as follows by HI. Excellency ;—" I salute you, chiefs and elder men; I wish yo health ; may peace be among you. I am glad to see you, I rejoi* to meet you here have much to say to you, many important things. I have heard of all that has been done, some things good but some very bad. When I see your Church, the work of you own hands, and when I hear from your true friend, Mr Hadfiel what progress you have made in Christian knowledge I rejoic.s. greatly, but when I hear of the evil, that has been done by 8oine Oft; you I can hardly believe it has been _done by-- any of the sam people—so bad is it in my Sight. I have hear€l of all that h' happened at the Wairau from the Europeans. It has grieved m

1 e:vrt exceedingly. I now ask you to tell me your story that I ma compare the two and judge fairly. When I have heard your account of that dark day I will reflect, and tell you • what I will do." Te Rauparaha then arose. He said they was no evil intended at the commencement of the affray. Land was the foundation of all their trouDles. The Europeans say it is theirs, but who says so besides themselves. The Tory came to Pert Nicholson, and that was the commencement of the evil. We heard of the sale of that place by Te Warepori and Puni. We never agreed to that sale, and we never received any payment. Who authorised him. to sell our land ? The Waira,u was taken away by Thompson and Captain -Wakefield. When we heard they were surveyini! the land we went to Nelson to forbid their doing so. Captain Wakefield then said, "If you stop the surveying we will shoot you." I answered, " Well, what Matter if you do ; we shall lose our lives, but Wairau shall not be taken." . Mr Thompson said to me, " Rauparaha, spare my life." I answered, " A while ago I wished to talk with you in a friendly manner, and you would not ; now vou say save me. I will not save you ; it is not our custom in war to save the chiefs of our enemies. We do not consider our victory complete unless we kill the chiefs of our opponents." Our passions were much excited, and we could not help killing the chiefs, continued Itauparaha.

His Excellency arose and addressed the Natives as follows :—

Now I have beard both sides ; I have reflected on both accounts, and I am prepared to give my decision. In the first place the Englishmen were wrong; they had no right to build houses upon land to which they had not established their claim the sale of which you disputed, and upon which Mr pain had not decided. They were wrong in trying to apprehend you—you who had committed no crime. They were wrong in marking and measuring your land in opposition to your repeated refusal to allow them to do so until the Commissioner had decided on their claim. I know that you repent of their conduct, and are now sorry those men were killed, and my decision is that, as the Englishmen were very greatly to blame, and as they brought on and began the fight, and as you were hurried into crime by their misconduct, I will not avenge their death. In future let us dwell peaceably without distrust. I have told you my decision, and my word is sacred." It was in 1850 that the New Zealand Co.'s charter was surrendered, and all its interest in the Colony reverted, to the Imperial Government.



The unique illustration given herewith is a representation c: the coat of arms adopted Jay the Maori King Tawhiao, ani
____ appeared at the head of his address at the opening of the Genera Assembly on the 2nd May, 1894.

Some instances of traditional tribal secrecy of the Maor, have lately been quoted, but they sink into insignificance whe

viewed alongside of the great national _secret—cif_the organise


rising for the extermination of European immigrants. In 185 the consternation and distrust caused by the rapid increase of t
____ Pa-kehas had become general throughout the North Island, and it was decided that something must be done to stem the enveloping current and drive back the tide of white humanity that they felt was beginning to press heavily upon them. The northern tribes although favourable to ithe extermination project, having tee very roughly handled in the earlier wars, preferred to stand by till it could be seen with what success the national movement would be attended in the south. The first step was to make Potatau king. With few exceptions this was done with the wish of the whole Native population. It was as a condition of the kingshi that nomore land was to be sold to Europeans, and no public roads were to be allowed to pass through Native territory ; all criminals were to be protected from being legally prosecuted if

they sought refuge under the wing of this newly-constituted


In 1845 the Governor, Sir George Grey, had prohibited the sale of arms and ammunition to the Maoris. It was therefore to be expected that in 1853, when extreme melsures had been decided on to kill off the white man, this prohibition would prove harassing and exasperating. There were at Oat time only a fesi) old fowling-pieces and flint-locks in the Maoris' possession., Immediately upon the arrival of Colonel Thomas Brown, the successor of Sir George Grey, an agitation was commenced for the repeal of the prohibition. The refrain of the song almost always in the ear of Colonel Brown was :—" Friend, 0 Friend, the Governor, let us buy your guns and powder to shoot pigeons.”; Perseverance at last brought success, and the law in 1857 wasi repealed. It is to-day a matter of surprise that the enormousf--' purchases of arils and ammunition which followed did notfixeuse` suspicion. There are some few men, best able to form an opinion of what was going on, who warned the Governmeut of the secret organisation proceeding, but they were pooh-poohed, and treated


as alarmists. Not one sirigle instance is on record of any European having been warned by the Maoris of the intended fate of every Pakeha in the island until after the Government, in the blindest ignorance of what was *going on, commenced war against the Natives. In 1866 the Government began the struggle on a frivolous pretext. A Taranalci chief refused consent to the sale of some land which a few of his tribe, in consequence of sore dispute, wisked_to sell. A conflict was entered into in utter ignorance of the precise nature of the difference, and war was precipitated before the Maoris had completed their organisation; so it was that good luck saved the European population from much more direful misfortune than actually befel them. A parallel was the Indian mutiny of 1857, which burst forth before the preparations of the conspirators had been perfected. So crass was the obtuseness of -theStgrad:Richmond Ministry that they induced the Governor to write a despatch to the Colonial Secretary (the late Duke of Newcastle), saying that twenty men and a block-house would le sufficient to coerce the Taranaki chief, William King—which meant the whole Maori nation—into submission. Yet it transpired that 10,000 Imperial troops and 5000 Colonial volunteers met with very indifferent success.. It was after fre institution of Potatau's kingship that, in 1860, the war commenced. The Maoris said, " The Governor has set fire to the fern at Taranaki, and the smoke will cover the whole Island." It was their fixed intention to kill every white man, woman, and child. Eventually Potatau suffered very seriously, and the various tribes became mere remnants of what they formerly were, so great was the-salcrifice of life. Then a worse misfortune befel the Maoris in the spread of the Han Ha,u religion, which had the effect of reducing them to a state of madness, and brought the end of the war near. ;•

The Maori question is now practically at an end ; the great promises of a Maori civilisation have become meaningless, and the bubble of professed intention to Christianise the Native race has burst. Conditions that possessed all the protentialities for the development of a beautiful peace, in which the civilised and Christianised Maori people would live in prosperity side by side with their white brothers, are gone, as many a noble and well-fought-for idea has gone before. The true level of the Maori intellectuality and morality has become tolerably well-known. His numbers are fast diminishing, and although he may have been ignorant, superstitious, and cruel, he was brave and defended himself against oppression and foreign conquest with rare courage and skill. The secret of his long and effective resist.arroe to superior numbers might, with advantage, be studied and laid to heart by his conquerors.

The Maoris do not have any tradition of a creation ; thel

, seem to have conceived the power of Nature very much in theli

same way as a generative cause of all things. They had no priestsor temples, and their religion was of a most mythical description.

There existed many legends, such as that of Maui haying fished up the island from the bottom of the sea, and the Maori version of the origin of man and Uenguku (the Atua,, or spirit of the rainbow) was considered the God of War, or war spirit, and as such was made the subject of incantations. But none of these myths were of general acceptation, and even the name Atua (Spirit, or God as it is often mistranslated) was sometimes bestowed upon a living chief. While there was an absence o religion, superstition abounded. All believed in and feared the taniwha (or water demons), and the demons of the woods and mountains; indeed the bravest warrior would not have walked at night over the most familiar road without a lighted brand in hij,_ hand to keep away malevolent spirits. The natural causes of diseases being unknown, they invented witchcraft, the belief iiti_ which was as universal as that spirits, on the death of bodies they had animated, departed for the land of the hereafter from Tei7 Reinga, a rocky point near North Cape. Persons of all ages wert subject to this *dire disease of the imagination, the only chance of cure being to persuade the sufferers in the early stage of th disease that the charm of malign influence which bound them w broken by some superior power or skill. . A person of note coul not pass away but that his death was attributed to witchcraft usually ascribed to the practices of an enemy at a distance. If however, it suited the friends of the deceased to accuse some one near at hand who could conveniently be sacrificed, instant deat was the smallest penalty inflicted. To these superstitions, chiefly must be attributed the origin of the cruelty and cannabalism o which the Maoris were undoubtedly guilty. Their old mythica deities, Po, Rangi, Papa, Tiki, etc., were invoked alike by th whole Maori race, especially in the ceremonies required to free • person from the sacred restrictions comprised under the ter

" tapu." They were the national gods, for they were theij. common. ancestors, bu t at the same time every _.Maori tribe an .7.,,. family Invoked independently each its own tribal and family;. ancestors. The religious rites are immediately connected wit" certain laws relating to things tapu, or things sacred or prohibitesd


the breach of which law by anyone is a crime displeasing to the Atua of his family. Anything tapu must not e allowed to come in contact with any vessel or place where food is kept. This law

. is absolute. Should such contact take place, the food, vessel, or place becomes tapu, and one dare not touch these things.

The idea in which this law originated appears to have been that a portion of the sacred essence of an Atua, or of a sacred person, was directly communicable to objects which they touched, and also that the sacredness so communicated to any object could afterwards be more or less transmitted to anything else brought into contact with it. It was therefore necessary that anything containing the sacred essence of an Atua should be made tapd, to protect it from becoming polluted by the contact of food. Everything not included in the class tapu was called " noa," meaning free or common. Things and persons tapu, however, could be made noa by means of certain ceremonies, the object of which was to extract the tapu essence, and restore it to the source from which it originally came. It has been already stated that every tribe and family has its own especial Atua. The Ariki, or head of a family, in both male and female lines, is regarded by its own family with a veneration almost equal to that of their Atua (God). It forms, as it were, the connecting link between the living and the spirit § of the dead, and the ceremonies required for releasing anything from the tapu state cannot be perfected without its intervEntion. Apart from the innate belief in the immortality of the s3u1, the Maoris venerated the spirits of their deceased ancestors, believing that these took an interest in their living descendants ; moreover they feared them, and were careful to observe the traditional precepts recognised by them. while alive. Among the Atuq, much held in awe by the 1\11orii were the Atua, Nollo-Whare, or house-dwelling gods—spirits of the germs of unborn infants—also known as Kahukahu, the forms of rnakutu employed to counteract the curse of some other tohunga, or wiiernan, for whoever practices ma,katu, even though he is skilled in the art, may have to yield to the mama of some other wiseman who can command the assistance of a more powerful Atua.

Maori education in the olden days consisted of running, wrestling, and reed throwing. Animated as all these pastimes were, quarrels were rare, and discord ccmparatively unknown. Days and weeks, and even months passed without an angry word being spoken—without an oath being uttered ; indeed the Maori language was almost absolutely destitute of profane terms ; the sole curse it contained being such an awful one that it was only applied to a public enemy, or those about to become o. and its use was almost invariably a sign of immediate war.


The following interpretation of the address issued by King Tawhiao at the opening of the Maori General Assembly in 1894, appearing under the unique coat-of-arms as illustrated elsewhere, gives a fair idea of Maori methods of dealing with political matters :—



MAY 2ND, 1894.

This is my word : Give me your attention that you may all bear what I have to say. This is my first address to you this day. My blessing upon the Right Honourable the Premier and his Ministry. May God protect you all. List to me the leaders, Ministers, Honourable Members, and others, that you may all clearly understand what I have to say. As I am not clear on certain points during the preceding sessions allow me, I pray, some latitude. Should any of these tribes wish to speak on this subject let them all agree so as not to delay the matter. It would be well for them to appoint a head as a judge for them, and to take his decision as final. If they take this advice they will find that the matter will be settled more. quickly. What the leaders, Ministers, and others have to say on this matter : I will not say that it was not the head that completed this matter, but one and all of us. I do not want you to think that I am egotistical in this matter, therefore I appoint this judge to settle the matter quickly. In conclusion I may further say whatever you do, work with a will ; keep your object in view and work strong, and God will protect you all.

The Statutes-:--The Acts in Tribes of the . North Island; 2. Animals ; 3. The Prevention

Brief : 1. The Federation of the The Prevention of Cruelty to of Laying Poison on Maori


Settlements; 4. Investigation of Maori Lands ; 5. The Justices of the Peace Act ; 6. Appropriation Act ; 7. Maori Lands Settlement Act of North Island ; 8. Restriction of Sale of Maori Lands. The above Acts in rotation have been completed at the Assembly of the leaders and Ministers, together with the Honourable Members and general public, and sanctioned in the presence of His Majesty the King. It is their desire to see this matter completed by this year's session. That is why I explain to you. God listen to your Native servants.

From your friend—T. T. RAWHITI.


Mr Thos. Bevan's father carried on rope-making for four years at Te Aro, Wellington, not at Petone, as mentioned on page 31.

The last paragraph on page 35 with respect to Ahitara and his wife should read : "Then a korero began. Ahitara asked for utu (payment) for his wife before he would return, and for his wife to be gil'en up, and while the korero was proceeding," etc.



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Reminiscences of an old colonist 1908


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