Otaki Maori Land Court Minutebook - 25 March 1874.
Pages 326 - 335.
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Wednesday 25th March 1874
Place – the same Present – the same
Pauira Te Ragikakutu – sworn
I live at Wellington. I belong to Ngati Tama and Ngati Awa.
I know the land under investigation. I do not understand a map. I have a claim to the land.
Ngati Toa came to Kapiti. My parents and others came with Ngati Toa and Ngati Tama. Ngati Tama came to Otaki and went back again. They returned again with Puoho and ---- on the other side of the river. Puoho remained at Maraekuta. (Wilcox Wirikake says at Kukutauaki) - ---- were sent to Ngati Tama at Poutama – who came in large numbers and occupied the land in question.
We built 3 pa’s – Ngakaroro, Puruaha and Waitaheke. They occupied the land from Te Horo to Otaki and occupied it up to Haowhenua. We lived on friendly terms together with Ngati Huia. This was through my aunt “Te Wai” – a relative of Puke’s.
Ngati Turanga cultivated on the land – 2 years they cultivated in the presence of my father. They quarreled and divided. Ngati Turanga came to Otaki.
Ngati Tama went away. Ngati Tama occupied a pa at Haowhenua. My father gave all the land to Pukehi – that is Ngati Turanga.
I went to Waikanae and have been away ever since. I have been living at Ohariu in Wellington.
Pukehi and Maaihi are my relatives and they have had charge of the land. I don’t know any other persons there.
Aperahama Te Ruru and his people – Ngati Turanga – who have any claim on this land - I never saw any other people on this land building houses – we only – Ngati Turanga were.
By Hoani Taipua
All this land belongs to Ngati Tama. Ngati Toa have no claim to it.
Ropata of Ngati Toa had no right to give any of this land to Ngati Kauwhata.
What Hapi’s witnesses state respecting Matene’s claim is not correct. He has no land in it.
Ngati Toa and Ngati Tama came together.
My houses are gone off this land. They were not of stone. I ceased to occupy at Haowhenua. Pukehi took charge. I did not leave it to Ngati Huia but to Ngati Turanga.
Of Ngati Tama – there are 4 chiefs. We left the branch of them our cultivations on this land. The boundary between Te Puoho and my father were from Ngakaroro and the mountain – Puoho’s the other side – Ngati Tama’s this side.
Parewhanake on behalf of Matene Te Whiwhi
Ngati Toa and Rauparaha came here together.
I exercised my own authority over this land. Matene had no claim on this land. I lived 8 years on this land before Haowhenua.
Rangitiora – sworn
I belong to Ngati Harue and live at Otaki.
I know this land. I claim it.
In 1836 – I like you to know things – I know what hapu’s were there on the land.
Ngati Huia, Ngati Kauwhata, Ngati Turanga and Ngati Pare were on it. I believe they occupied up to the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840.
After that, I saw Ngati Parekohatu on small portions of this land. Reremanuka was one near the mouth of the river. Matene and Rakapa were the representatives of Ngati Parekohatu there not Tamehana.
Ngati Turanga gave Tamehana “Te Whakapawaewae” – a pa tuna. This was near Reremanuka.
Ngati Huia’s claim began at Ngakaroro and ended at Waitaheke. There were no other hapu’s within those boundaries.
Ngati Kauwhata began at Poutahi or Waitaheke and ended at Kohatupaenoa.
Ngati Turanga commenced at Kohatupaenoa and ended at Haowhenua proper. Some Ngati Huia have with Ngati Turanga a right within these boundaries.
Ngati Pare had a reserve at Pukerarauhe – that is between Ngati Turanga and Ngati Huia land.
Matene and Rakapa of Ngati Parekohatu had a reserve at Katihiku – that is within Ngati Huia’s claim.
Tuahiwi is Ngati Turanga’s – Ngati Harua and Ngati Turanga are the same.
Matene and Rakapa have a small portion within Tuahiwi – known as Kah-----. Ngati Pare had a reserve at Tuahiwi.
Waopukatea is ------------ and Kohatuahumai and other places have been surveyed by Ngati Huia by arrangement and consent of Ngati Pare.
Otuwhatu was cleared by Ngati Pare but my father divided it. Ngati Pare end at Otuwhatu.
Ngati Turanga begins at Parakahia.
My father was first at Tuapaka. Ngati Huia went afterwards. Tuapaka was in dispute by Ngati Turanga, Ngati Huia and Ngati Pare and has not been surveyed and has been severally used by them for catching birds.
It’s only latterly that Ngati Pare has disputed about the line shown through Karu-o-te-whenua. Parakahi is Ngati Turanga and not disputed. Ngati Pare disputes the boundary with me within Parakahia. Ngati Pare has a clearing – this clearing was given to Ngati Pare by Te Mata Uruahu and afterwards given by them and they have not been there since.
Wharanga--- was cleared by Ngati Kauwhata. Puoho planted a Whanga tree there.
Mangaone is Ngati Kauwhata’s. They had many cultivations there. No other hapu was with them. Paotahanui is Ngati Kauwhata’s but at the time of the sale to Searancke, Ngati Huia cleared a portion of it. Apa belongs to Ngati Kauwhata. Ngati Pare have lately been there cultivating.
Te Waka is Ngati Pare’s. Ngati Huia cleared some bush here too at the time of the sale to Searancke. Ngati Pare claimed from Whakahokihiahia to Makahuri stream where it ended.
Ngati---, Ngati Turanga and Ngati Pare have a right at Whakahokiahiahia.
Te Horo is Ngati Huia’s now. It begins at Makahuri and ends at Ngakaroro.
Pahiko is a small reserve of Rakapa’s near the Otaki. The land to Rakapa and Matene was settled on the ground by a committee.
I admit Ngati Pare have cultivated at Apa and other places but I heard the land was Ngati Kauwhata’s. Makahuri is a boundary where Ngati Pare’s claim ceased.
Ngati Huia have not a claim from Makahuri to Te Waka. Any right that they may have is since the sale to Mr. Searancke. Ngati Huia cleared the places named by them at the time of that sale. I did not see Ngati Huia cultivations previous to 1858 but saw their eel pa’s. One was at Oruanuku – (outside).
Ngati Turanga had not a cultivation that I saw at Whakahokiahiahi previous to 1858.
I heard that you went to drive Parakaia off these but you did not succeed.
Te Rei Parewhanake
There are three hapu’s in this block - Ngati Kauwhata, Ngati Turanga and Ngati Huia. ----- sheep have been running on this land - this land of these hapu’s. Thomson pays no rent to these hapu’s. They are allowed to run without. Pahiko is Watene’s.
Enoka – sworn
I live at Katihiku and belong to Ngati Kauwhata.
I know this land and have a claim at Waitaheke.
At Poutahi is a line between Ngati Kauwhata and Ngati Huia laid down by Ropata Hurumutu - the other boundary to Haowhenua thence to Te Tarata dividing Ngati Turanga’s claim u to the mountain. Ngati Kauwhat on Ngati Huia side are occupying at Taranaki within these boundaries.
In 1858, I heard of a lie of Aperahama’s that Tarata was given to him. Ropata Hurumutu laid down the line at Haowhenua at the Kariritahi. The line at Waitaheke goes through Apa to the mountain. Tamehana and I are at Waitaheke – it is ours.
In 1858, Ngati Huia cleared Te Waka. Hinenuitepo was put there by Ngati Huia.
Hoani Taipua Skipworth are and is the persons to agree about that place. No person has any cultivations on this block. Ngati Kauwhata have authority over this land through Ropata Hurumutu.
Ngati Tama did not say to my parents at the time these boundaries were laid down that they had given that land to Pukehi. Ngati Tama went away and said no word. No man has objected up to this day.
I have not yet surveyed this land.
From Apa to Makahuri – a burial ground of Ngati Huia is at Whakahokiahiahia. I don’t know if they have cultivations there.
Ngati Huia had right over that land previous to 1858. Matnga said the fences up in raupo not in leaves of trees.
Had Matene no right over this land? I don’t know.
Do you know Hairuha? Yes.
Renao – sworn
I live at Otaki and am a Ngati Kauwhata.
I know the land. I have a claim to the portion spoken by last witness.
This land was given to Ngati Kauwhata by Ngati Toa through Ropata at the time of Hekewhirinui migration. Ngati Kauwhata settled at Waitaheke. Ngati Toa were there too and cultivated there with us. Another portion extending to Taranaki was cultivated by Ngati Kauwhata. Poutahi was the boundary. Te Piri was a pa tuna of Ngati -----.
When Ngati Kauwhata came, Ngati Tama went away. Ngati Kauwhata extended to Mangaone and cultivated. They saw Puoho’s cultivations there. He was Ngati Tama. These were all abandoned by Ngati Tama and occupied by Ngati Kauwhata. Paotepuoho’s place was Maraekuta at Haowhenua. Ngati Kauwhata sent a message to Puoho. He went to Kapiti. All Ngati Raukawa went to Ohau after the fight. Ngati Kauwhata came back from Oroua to this land. My father remained at Kapiti and died there.
After that was Kuititanga. Ngati Raukawa came to Rangiuru then and after the fight Ngati Kauwhata then came back to this land and Ngati Kauwhata cultivated the places examined last Saturday. Some Ngati Kauwhata went to Oroua and some remained. Six Ngati Kauwhata are buried at Waitaheke.
In 1858, many -----. Moihi and I and the others remain with our children. The peach and apple trees were planted on the land by Ngati Kauwhata.
Waka and Apa are my cultivations not Whakahokiahiahia.
Whose is the land outside your boundary? It is Ngati Huia, Ngati Turanga’s and yours in dispute.
Who did you hear claims to here? Puoho and Ngati Pare. I saw Te Puke a Ngati Pare cultivating at Apa. They did not cultivate at Mangaone.
Did you join in the sale to Searancke? I did and Hemi. Ngati Huia withheld that land but they had no right to withhold my land. I chose to sell.
I know Hairuha. I don’t know that he gave Waitaheke to Matene. I have seen Tamehana’s sheep running over the land. They were not driven off because everybody’s sheep and cattle have been there. I know Pahiko.
Court adjourned for an hour.
At 2 pm the court resumed.
Hector McDonald – sworn
I live at Horowhenua.
I have been acquainted with this country since 1832.
I first came to Otaki in a boat from Kapiti.
At that time, Ngati Huia’s lived in a large pa at the mouth of the Otaki River on the north side. On the south side, I cannot say whether there were any natives. The course of the river is changed from what it was then. It then ran down by the octors.
In 1853, I came again from Kapiti where I was whaling with Te Maturua – a Maori girl. We went from Pakakuta to Mangaone. Manahi was with us. Manahi showed us Kurukohatu then as his cultivation. Waopukatea was a pa. We went along the path to Mangaone and saw the clearing – Pahika. Potatoes were growing there then. Manahi said it belonged there. Some other clearings we saw near Mangaone. We found people there living in houses and cultivations around. I did not know the tribes but one was Tamamutu and another Hairua and I know since that they are Ngati Kauwhata. That is the farthest I went that year.
In 1847, I came here to live at Otaki. The same people were at Mangaone then as on my previous visit. I didn’t hear then of any subdivision of this land.
When I came here, Papakuta was then washed away and the people had come out from Rangiuru and lived here then they scattered about Tuahiwi, Waopukatea and Porotawhao. Matene’s mother – Tapiora lived there at Katihiku also Aperahama Te Ruru, Pukehi – the father of Karama, Pirimona Te Tewe, Te Manahi, Te Manga – sister of Hapi Rangitewhata. There were others.
I have been to Mangaone many times since. I settled here. I know all the clearings.
Kowhitiwhiti is a clearing near the Otaki River. I understood it to be a Ngati Huia clearing. I saw no people there.
Haukere was a large clearing of Ngati Huia and Ngati Turanga.
I have been to Mangaone many times the same people continued there selling me corn and wheat until 1853. I never saw any Ngati Pare people on this block.
I did not know that Matene has a place near Pahiko. I heard so the other day.
Concludes case of Ngati Huia
Moroati Kiharoa – sworn
I belong to Ngati Pare.
I live here and at Manawatu. I have no claim to the land before the court.
Ngati Pare land begins at Otuwhatu, Pareotepuohu, Paotaonui. At Pareotepuohu, trees are planted which are from Taranaki along a branch of Mangaonui through Whakahokiahiahia to Makahuri to Kapakapanui from Kapakapanui to the mountain.
I don’t understand a map.
Te Puoho and Ngati Whakatere arrived here first. Afterwards, Ngati Raukawa. They went across to Kapiti – cultivated at Kapiti 2 years and came back here again. They commenced to cultivate outside near the sea. Otaki was built. Puoho came from Maraekuta to Otaki. His hapu’s were living with Ngati Whakatere at Te Horo. He gave the land to Ngati Pare.
Waha-o-te-marangai, Otuwhatu, Tarehu, Te Pare-o-te-Puohu, Paotaonui, Apa, Whakahokiahiahia, Makahuri, Te Horo and Te Hapua – all these places were given. I don’t dispute Te Horo now. I am only tracing the places.
Haowhenua fight took place. People were killed. Puoho came a second time and brought powder, shot and lead. He went to Kapiti – did not take part in Haowhenua.
After the fight, Ngati Raukawa dispersed. After 12 months they returned to Otaki. We then occupied the places I have named along this boundary.
The hapu’s on this land are Ngati Pare, Ngati Whakatere, Te Hapuiti, Te Matukiwaho. These people occupied and cultivated on the land and nobody had anything to say to them.
Then these cultivations were cleared. They extended to Te Horo – ended at Te Hapua – the boundary. We afterwards put pigs on the land. No man came to object to the pigs. We dry fern root afterwards.
Haurangi of Ngati Pare died here in Otaki. Ngati Toa came to the funeral. We gave them 20 kits of fern root. This fern root was from Te Paotaonui and nobody objected to our digging it there. From that up to the Kuititanga, nobody objected to our occupation.
When the Hinau berry was right, we went to Otuwhatu to gather them for food. Ngati Raukawa – some present now in court went with us. I caught birds at Kapakapanui to Pukehinau. Huia’s were caught there also the feathers of thirty tails were given to me. My hapu went twice for Huia’s up to the Treaty I and my hapu’s occupied this land and to the settlement and Otaki.
In 1858, began trouble about this land when we offered the land for sale. That was Matene’s sale because he wanted to get rid of Tamehana who then lived at Kukutauaki. Matene came to Te Matenga and said join me and let us drive Tamehana into the sea. Matenga consented. I say, if Ngati Huia had a right to that land, why did Matene ask Matenga to join him.
All the tribe objected to the sale because of Karanama – a chief of Ngati Huia – objecting and Ngati Raukawa joined him.
We – Ngati Pare – then went to survey at Te Horo. Ngati Huia also went.
We had a dispute there. Matene and I went aside and disputed. I said to Matene – let this be the boundary at Te Horo and it was established. We cut a line from Te Horo to Paotaonui where we found Ngati Huia. For fear of quarrelling, we came away and left there.
I then went to Manawatu and assembled the people there and at Rangitikei. That meeting came here to Otaki. Our dispute with Ngati Huia was then adjudicated upon. Kawana Hunia, Noa Te Rauhihi and others presided at that meeting. Here, cross questioned. Decision was against Ngati Huia.
Karanama complained of decision being unfair and upset the whole thing. Karanama then called a meeting. About 500 assembled at Katihiku. Ngati Toa and Ngati Awa were present. Karanama said I give back this land – meaning the land before the court - from Te Horo to Waha-o-te-marangai at Otaki River. Not one Ngati Huia objected to Karanama giving the land.
Their statement relative to Epiha’s objection is not true.
I got up and said – we give back Te Horo, let the boundary be at Makahuri. Nobody objected.
After this, Parakaia went to Whakahokiahiahia. We remained at Te Wa----,Hinenuitepo and I and our children. It was then Parakaia cleared the bush. We cleared together – to drive him off. When the trees were dry, I set fire to the clearing and planted potatoes there. Parakaia never returned after that. I have people living at Makahuri. I came away afterwards with Parakaia and left Hinenuitepo and her children there.
Ngati Huia’s statement that this was land returned by them to Hinenuitepo is not true.
Xed by Hapi Rangitewhata
Have you cleared land there with your own hands? My hapu’s have.
Is this a new cultivation? No. It is an old one of mine not yours.
Have you any trees at Kapakapanui for snaring birds? Yes.
Have you not heard that I went there for birds? Yes but you had right.
Are those places not Ngati Huia? No. Mine are mine.
What was Katihiku meeting about? About Te Horo.
Did Ngati Huia occupy Te Horo after the meeting? They were there but I and Hinenuitepo ordered them off and they went.
Weren’t Ngati Pare chased away from Te Karoro to Whakahokiahiahia? I don’t know.
Is not the line between Wahaotemarangai and Ngati Huia and Hakaraia arranged? I didn’t hear.
Court adjourned until 9.30 tomorrow.